IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL · IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (2024)

IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (1)

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May 2019

IEA Wind TCP Task 37

Systems Engineering in Wind Energy - WP2.1 Reference Wind Turbines

Technical Report

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IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (2)

NOTICE

This work was authored in part by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, operated by Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Funding provided by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Technologies Office. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of the DOE or the U.S. Government.

This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reports produced after 1991 and a growing number of pre-1991 documents are available free via www.OSTI.gov.

NREL prints on paper that contains recycled content.

IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (3)

IEA Wind Task 37 on Systems Engineering in Wind Energy

WP2.1 Reference Wind Turbines

Pietro Bortolotti1, Helena Canet Tarres2, Katherine Dykes1, Karl Merz3, LathaSethuraman1, David Verelst4, and Frederik Zahle4

1National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO, USA2Wind Energy Institute, Technische Universitat Munchen, Germany

3SINTEF Energy Research AS, Trondheim, Norway4Wind Energy Department, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark

May 23, 2019

Abstract

This report describes two wind turbine models developed within the second work package (WP2) ofIEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine modelscan be used as references for future research projects on wind energy, representing a modern land-basedwind turbine and a latest generation offshore wind turbine. The land-based design is a class IIIA gearedconfiguration with a rated electrical power of 3.4-MW, a rotor diameter of 130 m, and a hub height of110 m. The offshore design is a class IA configuration with a rated electrical power of 10.0 MW, a rotordiameter of 198 m, and a hub height of 119 m. The offshore turbine employs a direct-drive generator.

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IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (4)

Contents

1 Introduction 9

2 Survey on Reference Turbine Use Cases and Needs 112.1 Historical Reference Turbine Use and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.1.1 NREL 5-MW Reference Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.1.2 DTU 10-MW Reference Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.2 Specifications for New Reference Wind Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142.2.1 Land-Based Reference Wind Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142.2.2 Offshore Reference Wind Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

3 Design Tools and Methodologies 163.1 Cp-Max - TUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.2 HAWTOpt2 - DTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.3 WISDEM - NREL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

4 3.4-MW Land-Based Wind Turbine 194.1 Design Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194.2 Rotor Aerodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204.3 Rotor Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224.4 Hub, Drivetrain, Generator, and Nacelle Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

4.4.1 Drivetrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264.4.2 Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274.4.3 Nacelle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4.5 Tower Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294.6 Control and Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.7 Frequency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.8 Load Assessment and Design Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

5 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine 365.1 Design Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365.2 Airfoil Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375.3 Rotor Aerodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375.4 Rotor Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

5.4.1 Structural Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395.4.2 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425.4.3 Material Layup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

5.5 Hub, Shaft, Nacelle, and Generator Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.5.1 Hub, Shaft and Nacelle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.5.2 Direct-Drive Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

5.6 Tower and Offshore Support Structure Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515.7 Controller Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515.8 Load Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

6 Conclusions 58

Appendices 63

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A Land-Based Reference Turbine Detailed Properties and Loads 63A.1 Blade Aerodynamic Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63A.2 Airfoil Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65A.3 Blade Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78A.4 Nacelle Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87A.5 Tower Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88A.6 Loads Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

B Offshore Reference Turbine Detailed Properties and Loads 94B.1 Blade Aerodynamic Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94B.2 Airfoil Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96B.3 Blade Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112B.4 Nacelle Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122B.5 Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125B.6 Controller Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127B.7 Tower Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129B.8 Load Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

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List of Tables

1 Survey on reference turbine use cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Summary of the configuration of the land-based wind turbine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Set of airfoils used in the rotor aerodynamic design of the 3.4-MW wind turbine. . . . . . . . 204 Mechanical properties of the composite materials used in the blade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Drivetrain properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Static and fatigue mechanical properties of the steel used in the tower of the 3.4-MW wind

turbine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Operational data of the rotor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Natural frequencies of the land-based wind turbine. Legend: OoP - out-of-plane, IP - in-plane,

asym. - asymmetrical, edge - edgewise, hor. - horizontal, vert. - vertical, FA - Fore-Aft, SS -Side-side. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

9 Key parameters of the new 10-MW compared to the original DTU 10-MW RWT. . . . . . . . 3610 Design variables used in the optimization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3711 Overall properties of internal structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3912 Fiber orientation and apparent mechanical properties of the multidirectional plies. Repro-

duced from [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4213 Mechanical properties of balsa wood [52] [53]. The indices 1, 2, and 3 refer to the blade’s

longitudinal, transverse, and out-of-plane direction, respectively. Reproduced from [4]. . . . . 4314 Characteristic values of the longitudinal tensile and compressive strain to failure of the mul-

tidirectional plies (5% fractile values with a confidence level of 95%). Reproduced from [4]. . 4315 Some key properties and dimensions of the tower and foundation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5116 Operational summary of the 10-MW rotor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5217 Operational data of the 10-MW rotor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5218 Considered Design Load Cases from the IEC standard according to [54]. Note that DLC6x is

excluded. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5519 Aerodynamic shape of the land-based wind turbine blade - Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6320 Aerodynamic shape of the land-based wind turbine blade - Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6421 Airfoil shape - Root circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6522 Airfoil shape - FX77-W-500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6623 Airfoil shape - FX77-W-400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6624 Airfoil shape - DU00-W2-350 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6725 Airfoil shape - DU97-W-300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6826 Airfoil shape - DU91-W2-250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6927 Airfoil shape - DU08-W-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7028 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - Root circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7129 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FX77-W-500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7230 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FX77-W-400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7331 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - DU00-W2-350 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7432 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - DU97-W-300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7533 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - DU91-W2-250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7634 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - DU08-W-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7735 Position in respect to blade pitch axis of the structural components of the blade - Part I. . . 7836 Position in respect to blade pitch axis of the structural components of the blade - Part II. . . 7937 Thickness of the structural components of the blade - Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8038 Thickness of the structural components of the blade - Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8139 Thickness of the core in the sandwich panels of the blade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8240 Mass and stiffness properties of the blade - Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8341 Mass and stiffness properties of the blade - Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8442 Mass and stiffness properties of the blade - Part III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8543 Mass and stiffness properties of the blade - Part IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

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44 Aeroelastic modeling of the nacelle of the land-based wind turbine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8745 Structure of the tower of the land-based wind turbine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8846 Elastic properties of the tower of the land-based wind turbine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8947 Load envelope at blade root. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x

- flapwise direction, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9048 Load envelope at hub center. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x

- aligned with the shaft, pointing downwind, y - in the rotor plane, z - in the rotor plane. . . 9149 Load envelope at tower base. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x

- aligned with the ground, pointing downwind, y - side, z - aligned with the tower, pointingupwards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

50 Weibull weighted damage equivalent loads (DEL) for a number of cycles equal to 106. . . . . 9351 Aerodynamic shape of the offshore wind turbine blade. Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9452 Aerodynamic shape of the offshore wind turbine blade. Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9553 Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-211 21.10% airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9754 Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-241 24.10% airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9855 Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-270 blend 27.00% airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9956 Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-301 30.10% airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10057 Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-330blend 33.00% airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10158 Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-360 36.00% airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10259 Airfoil shape - Interpolated48 48.00% airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10360 Airfoil shape - Interpolated72 72.00% airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10461 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-211 (Re=1.00e+07) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10562 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-241 (Re=1.00e+07) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10663 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-270blend (Re=1.00e+07) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10764 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-301 (Re=1.00e+07) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10865 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-330blend (Re=1.00e+07) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10966 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-360 (Re=1.00e+07) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11067 Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11168 Beam structural properties of the blade in HAWC2 format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11369 Beam structural properties of the blade in HAWC2 format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11470 Position of the structural components with regard to the structural reference plane . . . . . . 11571 Beam structural properties of the nacelle, turret, shaft, and hub assembly in HAWC2 format. 11572 Beam structural properties of the nacelle, turret, shaft, and hub assembly in HAWC2 format. 11673 Cross section stiffness and mass properties of the tower. Reproduced from [4]. . . . . . . . . . 11674 Material thicknesses in the trailing-edge reinforcement region (DP00-DP02 and DP15-DP17

in Figure 23). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11775 Material thicknesses in the main-panel region (DP02-DP04 and DP13-DP15 in Figure 23). . . 11876 Material thicknesses in the spar cap region (DP04-DP07 and DP10-DP13 in Figure 23). . . . 11877 Material thicknesses in the leading-panel region (DP07-DP08 and DP09-DP10 in Figure 23). 11978 Material thicknesses in the leading-edge reinforcement region (DP08-DP09 in Figure 23). . . 11979 Material thicknesses in the trailing-edge (DP17-DP00 in Figure 23). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12080 Material thicknesses in the aft shear web (DP03-DP14 in Figure 23). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12081 Material thicknesses in the spar cap aft shear web (DP05-DP12 in Figure 23). . . . . . . . . . 12182 Material thicknesses in the spar cap front shear web (DP06-DP11 in Figure 23). . . . . . . . . 12183 Equivalent point mass properties of the nacelle assembly of the 10-MW offshore wind turbine.

The reference frame is located at tower top with z aligned with the tower axis pointing upwards,y pointing upwind toward the wind parallel to the ground, and x pointing sideways parallelto the ground. cog stands for center of mass and I for area moment of inertia. . . . . . . . . . 122

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84 Lumped masses for the nacelle assembly in HAWC2 coordinates of the tower top (see redcoordinate system with subscript TT in Fig. 37). Note that the total mass of the nacelleassembly for the HAWC2 model is separated out into the lumped massed from this table, andthe distributed properties for the beams as defined in Table 86. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

85 Lumped masses for the nacelle assembly in HAWC2 coordinates of the shaft and which is tilted6 degrees with respect to the horizontal (see red coordinate system with subscript shaft inFig. 37). Note that the total mass of the nacelle assembly for the HAWC2 model is separatedout into the lumped massed from this table, and the distributed properties for the beams asdefined in Table 86. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

86 Equivalent elastic properties of the shaft of the 10-MW offshore wind turbine. r is the coordi-nate along the shaft axis, where the 0 is at the main bearing and 5.4 m at the hub connection.The beam assumes the Timoshenko formulation used in HAWC2 [18]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

87 Electromagnetic design of the 10-MW reference direct-drive generator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12588 Structural design of the 10-MW reference direct-drive generator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12689 Physical parameters for the converter and transformer of the 10-MW RWT. . . . . . . . . . . 12690 Wall thickness distribution of the tower. Reproduced from [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12991 Loads envelope at blade root projected onto 12 loading directions in the Mx/My plane. Safety

factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y - edgewisedirection, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

92 Loads envelope at a blade station 0.7 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

93 Loads envelope at a blade station 2.9 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directionsin the Mx/M − y plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x -flapwise direction, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

94 Loads envelope at a blade station 4.8 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

95 Loads envelope at a blade station 9.7 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

96 Loads envelope at a blade station 14.5 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

97 Loads envelope at a blade station 19.3 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

98 Loads envelope at a blade station 24.2 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

99 Loads envelope at a blade station 31.4 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

100 Loads envelope at a blade station 38.7 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

101 Loads envelope at a blade station 45.9 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

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102 Loads envelope at a blade station 53.2 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

103 Loads envelope at a blade station 60.4 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

104 Loads envelope at a blade station 67.7 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

105 Loads envelope at a blade station 74.9 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

106 Loads envelope at a blade station 82.1 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

107 Loads envelope at a blade station 89.3 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwisedirection, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

108 Tower base load envelope projected into 4 loading directions in the Mx/M − y plane. Safetyfactors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - for-aft direction, y - side-sidedirection, z - tower torsion axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

109 Tower top load envelope projected into 4 loading directions in the Mx/M − y plane. Safetyfactors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - for-aft direction, y - side-sidedirection, z - tower torsion axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

List of Figures

1 Percentage of respondents by organization type. Only one respondent chose to abstain fromproviding their organization type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2 Input into the new land-based RWT design in terms of rated power and specific power. . . . 143 Input into the new offshore RWT design in terms of rated power and specific power. . . . . . 154 Algorithmic structure of Cp-Max. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Extended design structure matrix diagram of the workflow of HAWTOpt2. . . . . . . . . . . 176 The Wind-Plant Integrated System Design and Engineering Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 View from the pressure side and from the LE of the land-based wind turbine blade. . . . . . . 208 Aerodynamic blade shape of the land-based wind turbine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Positions along blade span of the various structural components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2310 Thicknesses of the structural components of the blade of the land-based wind turbine. . . . . 2311 Thicknesses of the core in the sandwich panels of the blade of the land-based wind turbine. . 2312 Sectional references frames. Aerodynamic: xA, yA; structural: xS , yS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2413 Drivetrain layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2614 DFIG module within GeneratorSE. Design dimensions and CAD illustration reproduced from [28]. 2715 Structural design of the tower for the land-based wind turbine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2916 Elastic properties of the tower for the land-based wind turbine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3017 Operational data of the land-based wind turbine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3218 Simplified Campbell diagram for the land-based wind turbine. The horizontal lines represent

the modes listed in Table 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3419 Optimized 10-MW blade planform compared to the baseline DTU 10-MW RWT. . . . . . . . 3820 View from the pressure side and from the LE of the offshore wind turbine blade. . . . . . . . 3921 Top view of the 10-MW blade showing internal structural geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4022 Tip view of the 10-MW blade showing internal structural geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

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23 Schematic showing the geometric parameterisation of the blade structure for the 10-MW rotor,reporting 17 division points (DP) used to define the various laminate sequences along the profile. 41

24 Schematic showing the definition of the structural angle for the 10-MW rotor. . . . . . . . . . 4125 Material stacking sequence for each region along the optimized blade. The x-axis represents

the non-dimensional blade span. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4426 A sketch of the nacelle layout of the 10-MW direct-drive wind turbine, not to scale with struc-

tural details omitted. Blades (not shown), hub, shaft, and generator rotor rotate. Bearingsare shaded grey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

27 A CAD illustration of the bedplate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4628 Outer rotor direct-drive generator. A CAD illustration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4729 Electromagnetic (and structural) design parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4830 Structural design parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4931 Analysis of the electromagnetic design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5032 Analysis of the structural design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5033 Steady-state performance and operation of the 10-MW rotor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5334 Loads envelope at blade root. Black star refers to the projected load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5635 Loads envelope at tower bottom. Black star refers to the projected load. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5636 Loads envelope at tower top. Black star refers to the projected load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5737 Beam model representation of the nacelle assembly. The location of the lumped masses are

given in blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

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1 Introduction

During the design of complex systems such as wind turbines, innovations, improved methods, and researchfindings are often made at the level of a single component, or discipline. One must then determine whetherthere will be any positive impact on the rest of the system, if any. If this evaluation can be made bymodifying a reference system, whose behavior has been well characterized, then the results may be readilyunderstood and compared against other relevant results. This helps to solidify the scientific basis, suchas reproducibility and benchmarking, of the findings. Also, from a purely practical standpoint, adoptingreference configurations helps all reporting activities.

Reference wind turbines (RWT) have aided the research community for some time. One of the mostwell known RWT is the NREL 5-MW, developed in 2005 using a combination of commercial turbine dataand parameters of other RWTs available at the time [1]. Designers and researchers around the world haveused this RWT, and while there are a number of turbine manufacturers who have developed 5-MW models(Repower, Areva, Bard, XEMC, Goldwind, and Gamesa), all of these turbines vary in rotor size (115-152m) from the original reference.

However, wind turbine technology has significantly advanced since 2005, making the 5-MW RWT lessuseful as a reference for modern technology. In addition, current offshore technology has scaled beyond5-MW. Siemens-Gamesa, and GE have deployed a 6-MW turbine, while Samsung and Vestas have 7- and8-MW models, respectively, and MHI (a Mitsubishi and Vestas joint venture) is now selling an 8-MW turbine[2]. 10-MW turbines have been proposed by Senvion, AMSC and Siemens Gamesa. Most recently, GE hasintroduced their Haliade-X 12-MW design that they expect to commercialize in the coming years [3]. The 5-MW RWT has a high-speed drivetrain, while most offshore wind turbines have moved toward medium-speedor direct-drive architectures. The 5-MW reference also has a high specific power of nearly 400 W/m2, whichwill skew the predicted annual energy production (AEP) leading to higher levelized cost of energy (COE)estimates when this turbine is used as the basis for economic assessments. In contrast, the new Haliade-Xproposed by GE has a specific power of 315 W/m2 and an estimated capacity factor of 63% when placed ona tower of approximately 150 m in height [3]. Structurally, the RWT rotor and nacelle are also much heavierthan modern turbine designs, having implications in tower and support structure design. In addition, thedesign was always intended as an offshore wind turbine but has been used extensively for land-based researchstudies due to the lack of alternatives. For both land-based and offshore applications, there is a need fornew RWTs that better reflect current technology.

In 2013, Denmark Technical University (DTU) Wind Energy released the DTU 10-MW RWT, which isa class IA offshore turbine [4]. The turbine was not designed to represent the state of the art or incorporateinnovative technologies, but was meant to be a baseline for benchmarking new technologies. The turbineis described with high detail, including blade geometrical data needed for both blade-element-momentumtheory (BEM) based and computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) tools, as well as detailed structural datarelevant for finite-element-modeling (FEM) codes. The turbine is widely used in the research communityand as of April 2018 had over 1000 users. It has been used and adapted in a number of Danish national andEuropean projects, such as INNWIND, MareWint and IRPWind. However, early use of the DTU 10-MWRWT found some shortcomings, in particular the too high the specific power of 400 W/m2. This furthermotivates the need for updated references for large-scale offshore wind turbine applications.

One of the core activities of the IEA Wind Task 37 Integrated RD&D [5] is to develop RWTs thatreflect current wind turbine technology. The consortium, that includes research and industry partners fromChina, Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA reached a broadagreement on the typical application areas and top-level characteristics of two RWTs that could be usedimmediately by the research and broader wind community, including:

• Onshore locations with moderate winds: a 3-MW class III turbine, with a large rotor for a high capacityfactor, and a geared drivetrain.

• Latest generation of offshore wind turbines: a 10-MW class I turbine with both a geared and direct-drive configuration.

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A survey was conducted to further explore the use cases and needs for RWT designs for research anddevelopment applications and to more specifically define the design characteristics of each RWT. Havingdefined the specifics of the configurations for each turbine based on input from the research communityand industry, a team of IEA Wind Task 37 participants developed the turbines in an iterative process withdesign reviews held at intermediate points along the development path. This report is meant to detail thedevelopment process and two resulting IEA Wind Task RWTs. For further details and data on the designssee the IEA Wind Task 37 software and data website or go to http://github.com/IEAWindTask37. It isimportant to note that as the task continues its work, there are plans to develop additional RWTs thatalign with evolving trends in commercial wind technology for land-based and offshore applications. The twodescribed in this document are the first in the series of IEA Wind Task 37 RWTs.

This document first reviews the results of the survey in Sect. 2 and then introduces in Sect. 3 the designtools and methodologies used in the design development of the wind turbine models. Then, the land-basedconfiguration is presented in Sect. 4, whereas the offshore configuration is presented in Sect. 5.

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2 Survey on Reference Turbine Use Cases and Needs

In the fall of 2016, a survey was conducted to identify the use cases and needs for RWTs in research anddevelopment applications. In total, 81 respondents completed the survey, which represents a broad crosssection of users from universities, research institutes, wind turbine manufacturers, wind farm developers,and consultancies. The bulk of the responses came from universities and research institutes, which havehistorically been the largest user groups for RWT designs. Fig. 1 shows the breakdown of respondents byorganizational affiliation type.

Figure 1: Percentage of respondents by organization type. Only one respondent chose to abstain fromproviding their organization type.

In terms of application, a large number of respondents work in the fields of aerodynamics, aeroelasticsand loads analysis, controls engineering, offshore support structure design and analysis, and multidisciplinarydesign, analysis and optimization (MDAO) and systems engineering for wind energy.

Respondents were first asked to identify the RWTs they had used in the past and to characterize thestrengths and weaknesses of those designs. In a second section, respondents were asked to provide input tothe key turbine configuration characteristics they would like to see for the new set of RWTs developed underthe IEA Wind Task 37.

2.1 Historical Reference Turbine Use and Evaluation

Of the 81 responses, 78 respondents had prior experience using a RWT. 65 respondents had experience withthe NREL 5-MW RWT, and 55 had experience with the DTU 10-MW RWT. A small number of respondentshad used other RWT designs including variants of the DTU 10-MW design used by European researchprojects as well as older designs from the early 2000s and before (notably the NREL Phase VI turbine [6]and WindPACT 1.5-MW RWT [7]).

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The majority of respondents, 76, had used the RWTs for research purposes whereas almost half, 34,had also used them for educational purposes. Only a small number, 13, had used them for commercialapplications. This reflects the survey demographics since only 16 of the survey respondents were fromcommercial organizations.

In terms of use cases, a broad set of applications was returned. Respondents were able to select multipleuse cases and the majority selected 2 or more. The dominant uses, not surprisingly, were in aeroelasticanalysis, structural analysis, and aerodynamic studies. Historic RWT designs have focused on the aeroelasticdescription of the machine to enable analysis of machine performance and loads. The second most dominantarea of use was in the offshore support structure and tower/foundation design. RWTs are particularlyvaluable as test cases for design of these major components since the detailed aspects of commercial windturbine designs are often not available. Beyond these primary use cases, other notable uses include bladedesign, controller design, and MDAO where RWTs provide test beds or baselines for design activities. Lesscommon responses included plant flow, wake, and wind farm modeling, which could be due to selection biasin the survey respondent set or reflects the fact that these are new and growing research areas where thedetailed aspects of the turbine design were less important. As the emphasis on modeling wind plants withhigher-fidelity wind turbines grows, we expect the user base at the plant modeling-level to grow and thistrend has been seen in the last several years in the wind research community. Table 1 summarizes the resultsfrom the respondents on use cases for RWTs.

Table 1: Survey on reference turbine use cases.

Use Case Users

Aerodynamics study 34

Aeroelastic analysis 48

Blade design study 25

Controller design 25

Drivetrain design 7

Tower/foundation design 21

Offshore support structure design 38

Structural analysis 40

Multidisciplinary design/analysis (MDAO) 22

Wake modelling 14

Plant flow modelling and controls 3

Wind farm design 10

Cost modelling 14

Thus, the respondents of the survey have had significant experience with RWTs for a variety of use casesand with the dominant two open-source designs of NREL 5-MW and DTU 10-MW RWTs. An extensivenumber of research papers used the RWTs. In just this survey alone, nearly 250 conference papers andjournal articles were identified by respondents that leverage one or more RWTs. This is likely a small sampleof the actual number. The next series of questions focused on the evaluation of these two historical RWTdesigns.

2.1.1 NREL 5-MW Reference Turbine

Each RWT was evaluated based on its sufficiency of scope (in terms of the sub-systems modeled) and modelfidelity. For the NREL 5-MW RWT, the vast majority of respondents found that the rotor aerodynamicdesign was sufficiently specified while most also found the rotor structure, controller, drivetrain, and towerdesign to be sufficiently specified. On the other hand, a larger number of respondents, 30% and 23%respectively, found the controller and drivetrain designs to be under specified.

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Specific critiques of the NREL 5-MW design included:

• The blade design as provided in original documentation included only the blade properties and notdetails of the geometric design. Sandia National Laboratories reverse engineered a blade design lateron, but this was seen as a short-coming of the original design. [8]

• One respondent described the model’s controller to be “jurassic” and many others critiqued the lackof detail on the controller and electrical design. A more detailed controller was later provided byBossanyi, but again not part of the original design. [9]

• Details of the hub design dimensions and blade root mass being too small; the blade torsional stiffnessbeing unrealistic; displacement response of dampers that does not match higher fidelity models; use ofolder airfoil families; blades being too heavy for modern designs; and a specific rating that is too high.

• Detailed reporting of the fatigue analysis was cited as something that would be useful for future designs.

• Lack of version control when releasing the design.

No RWT will ever be perfect nor exactly reflect commercial wind turbine designs along with full designspecifications, but all of these insights are helpful in terms of the development of new reference designs. Manyrespondents created their own variations of the NREL 5-MW RWT design to address the shortcomings asdescribed above.

2.1.2 DTU 10-MW Reference Turbine

The DTU 10-MW RWT was much more recently developed than the NREL 5-MW and also developed usinga formal optimization framework. Thus, it was expected that the design would be evaluated more favorably.Indeed, over 90% of respondents found the aerodynamic design to be sufficiently specified and over 75%found the rest of the machine, blade structure, controller, drivetrain, and tower design, to be sufficientlyspecified. This reflects the improved capabilities in developing RWTs that represent current technology withsufficient detail.

However, even given the strengths of the design, respondents found several areas for potential improve-ment, including:

• Many respondents still found the controller to not be sufficiently developed and also wanted the con-troller to be available in different file formats.

• The design lacks a detailed drivetrain design which impedes its utility in cost analysis. Users wouldalso like to see a direct-drive version of the design.

• The detailed structural design of the blade was said to be unrealistic by a few users without furtherreasoning. One respondent suggested Reynolds number dependent airfoil polars would be a usefuladdition.

• Some respondents wanted more clear and more consistent documentation and also found the CAD filesto be problematic. Some also expressed a desire for CFD meshes to be provided. The same commentabout version control was also expressed.

While some of these critiques may be disputable, a few have surfaced multiple times, including the needfor a better controller for RWT designs, more detailed blade structural design information, more detaileddrivetrain designs, and better documentation and version control. The team tried to address several of thesecommon criticisms in the development of the IEA Wind Task 37 RWTs.

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2.2 Specifications for New Reference Wind Turbines

Having evaluated past designs, the respondents were next asked to provide their input on the characteristicsof a new RWT design. This included the high-level configuration for the turbine including rated power, rotordiameter, specific power, maximum tip speed, hub height, and drivetrain design as well as additional designconsiderations.

2.2.1 Land-Based Reference Wind Turbine

For the land-based RWT, Fig. 2 shows the results for the key turbine configuration parameters of ratedpower and associated specific power.

Figure 2: Input into the new land-based RWT design in terms of rated power and specific power.

The majority of respondents suggested a 3-MW or 3- to 4-MW rated power for the new RWT which alignswell with many of the recent commercial product offerings that turbine manufacturers have introduced in thelast several years. For specific power, most respondents suggested a lower specific power of under 250 W/m2

or even less. This also shows the trend toward low-wind-speed turbines in industry with much higher capacityfactors and better performance in low-wind-speed sites. Ranges for suggested rotor diameters fell between100 and 170 m and generally aligned with respondents suggestions about appropriate rated power and specificpower combinations.

For drivetrain design, most respondents surprisingly favored a direct-drive configuration, with the secondhighest-scoring design configuration a high-speed geared configuration with a doubly-fed induction generator(DFIG). Maximum tip speed was recommended by most respondents to be between 80 and 90 m/s and hubheight was recommended to be between 120 and 150 m. The latter suggestion for the hub height alignswith developments especially in Europe where tall towers are increasingly used. However, design challengesfor tall towers and the use of novel configurations called into question whether such a large height werewarranted for the reference design.

To further inform the design specifications, the responses from the larger survey were used to solicitinput from a small number of industry representatives. The results of that process finalized the RWT designconfiguration. The final design would be a 3- to 4-MW range for rated power with a lower specific power (atmost 250 W/m2), a maximum tip speed up to 90 m/s, and a geared drivetrain with DFIG and a hub heightof approximately 100 m. Final design decisions related to the specific values of the turbine were left to thelead engineer for the RWT development.

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2.2.2 Offshore Reference Wind Turbine

For the offshore RWT, Fig. 3 shows the results for the key turbine configuration parameters of rated powerand associated specific power.

Figure 3: Input into the new offshore RWT design in terms of rated power and specific power.

For offshore, there was quite a range of interest in rated power from 8 MW all the way to 20 MW. Manyrespondents recommended a 10- to 12-MW turbine while quite a large number recommended even larger sizesof 15 to 20 MW. For the first design iteration, given limited resources, a redesign of the DTU 10-MW RWTrather than a completely new larger design was decided. The development of a larger RWT will likely follow.For specific power, most respondents suggested a value lower than 350 W/m2. Thus, the most significantchange to the DTU 10-MW RWT was to reduce the specific power from the current value of 400 W/m2.For maximum tip speed, between 90 to 110 m/s was recommended and a hub height of 140 m was themost popular response. Over half of the respondents recommend a drivetrain configuration of direct-drivewith a synchronous generator, though about a third of respondents also suggested a medium-speed geareddrivetrain with a synchronous generator.

Taking into account additional input from IEA Wind Task 37 industry participants, the final design waschosen for the DTU 10-MW RWT with a specific power of under 350 W/m2 , a maximum allowable tipspeed of up to 110 m/s, and a direct-drive drivetrain with a synchronous generator. Final design decisionsrelated to the exact values for the configuration were left to the lead engineer for the RWT development.

Note that the design of the support structure was not discussed here and is an important considerationfor the overall design. The RWT developed by DTU used a land-based tower and the reference wind planttrack within IEA Wind Task 37 (work package 2.2) is developing a tower/monopile support structure forthe turbine in 30 m of water depth using site-specific metocean conditions. That design will be handled ina separate report.

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3 Design Tools and Methodologies

The design of a wind turbine is a complex task that has to account for the tight interactions existing amongmultiple disciplines and the presence of several concurrent and often contrasting design requirements. Forsuch a challenge, automated systems engineering tools greatly simplify and speed up the exploration of thesolution space, and improve the understanding of the effects of design choices and trade-offs across varioussubsystems of the turbine. For the development of the RWT, formal MDAO methods were employed to moreclosely mimic commercial wind turbine designs than past RWT designs.

In this project, three frameworks have been used to develop the RWTs: the Code for PerformanceMaximization Cp-Max ([10, 11, 12, 13, 14] among others) developed at the Wind Energy Institute of Tech-nische Universitat Munchen (TUM), the Multidisciplinary Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Optimization ToolHAWTOpt2 [15] developed by DTU and the Wind-Plant Integrated System Design and Engineering ModelWISDEM [16] developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the U.S. The frameworksare described shortly in the paragraphs below; readers interested in the details of the formulations shouldrefer to the publicly available bibliography.

3.1 Cp-Max - TUM

The design methodologies implemented in the Cp-Max framework, which is continuously upgraded and ex-panded, perform the overall sizing of a wind turbine in terms of rotor diameter and tower height, whilesimultaneously generating a detailed sizing of the aerodynamic and structural components of the machine,ultimately aiming at the minimization of the COE. During the design process, the control laws governingthe machine are updated automatically, as they play a central role in determining the performance andloading of a wind turbine. The design approach is based on multifidelity modeling of the system, where2-D cross sectional models, multibody-based aeroservoelastic models and full 3-D FEM models are used atdifferent stages of the overall process. The use of the various fidelity models is motivated by the need tobalance accuracy with computational cost. The optimization is built in a nested structure, with an outeroptimization loop and multiple sub-optimization loops. The main motivation for this structure is to definewell-posed optimization algorithms that can converge quickly and accurately to unique solutions. All loopshave so far used gradient-based solvers.

The design methodology respects the certification guidelines prescribed by international standards [17].The output of Cp-Max is a complete aeroservoelastic model of the machine together with its control laws,the associated FEM models, the detailed geometry, and material properties of rotor and tower (including abill of materials), and all relevant performance information, including nominal and turbulent power curves,ultimate and fatigue loads at a user-defined number of control points on the machine, a complete vibratoryanalysis including a Campbell diagram, acoustic emissions, as well as COE and its breakdown accordingto a cost model. The code has been recently upgraded with new modules to further enlarge its scope andgenerality. The latest additions include the possibility to model and optimize the prebend curvature ofthe blades, the modeling of arbitrary blade sweep, and the ability to treat composite materials as designvariables.

3.2 HAWTOpt2 - DTU

HAWTOpt2 is a multidisciplinary design tool built for analysis codes for prediction of the structural prop-erties of the turbine and the aeroelastic response of the turbine. For the aeroelastic analysis, HAWTOpt2has interfaces to HAWC2 [18] and HAWCStab2 [19], which are both developed at DTU. For prediction ofthe structural properties of the turbine, HAWTOpt2 interfaces to BECAS [20, 21], which is a finite elementcross sectional tool. To handle the definition of the optimization problem, workflow, dataflow and paral-lelization of simulation cases, HAWTOpt2 uses OpenMDAO v1.x [22], which is a Python-based open-sourceframework. Using this framework allows us to efficiently make use of high-performance computing clusters,with MPI parallelisation of both cases within the objective function (e.g. design load cases), as well as theevaluation of finite difference gradients. OpenMDAO provides an interface to PyOptSparse [23], which has

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Aerodynamic Optimization: max AEP [Sect. 3.1]Opt. variables: chord and twist distributions, airfoil positionsConstraints: max chord, max blade tip speed,Σc, Τc, Σt/c, Τt/c

Structural Optimization: min ICC [Sect. 3.2.2]Opt. variables: thickness of blade structural components, tower wall thickness and diameters, composite material parameters [Sect. 3.2.5]Constraints: stress, strain, fatigue damage for blade and tower, max tip displacement, natural frequencies

CoE model

Macro Optimization: min CoE [Sect. 3.3]Opt. variables: Rotor diameter, turbine height, rotor cone angle, nacelle uptilt angle, blade shape parameters Σc, Τc, Σt/c, Τt/c

Constraints: max loads, max turbine height

Control synthesis

Load calculation

3D FEM verification [Sect. 3.2.3]

Opt. variables CoE + constraints

Until converged

Un

til c

on

verg

ed

Acoustic analysis

Pre-bend optimization Sweep balancing

Figure 4: Algorithmic structure of Cp-Max.

wrappers for several optimization algorithms. In this work, the open-source gradient-based interior pointoptimizer IPOPT [24] is used. Ultimate load simulations within the optimization loop are carried out us-ing the aero-hydro-servo-elastic software package HAWC2 on a reduced set of design load cases as per IEC61400-1 Ed3, while the final designs are evaluated using the full design load basis described in ref. [25].

Fig. 5 shows a so-called extended design structure matrix diagram of the workflow in HAWTOpt2.Overlaid boxes indicate components that are executed in parallel for each cross section/load case. At theupper level, the entire workflow is parallelised to enable parallel gradient evaluation. A typical optimizationwill use 20 cores per objective function evaluation, and be parallelized according to the available resourcewith n number of concurrent gradient evaluations via finite differencing.

Figure 5: Extended design structure matrix diagram of the workflow of HAWTOpt2.

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3.3 WISDEM - NREL

The WISDEM toolkit for MDAO of wind turbines and plants is a completely open-source toolkit (seehttp://github.com/WISDEM) that incorporates a set of models for wind turbine and plant design for cost ofenergy, and whose software modules have been tailored in their development to optimization applications.There are models for each of the turbine subsystems as well as turbine capex, plant costs, plant energyproduction and links to dynamic models for load analysis. Fig. 6 shows the full set of models within theWISDEM framework. Each model can be used in a stand-alone mode or coupled with other models based onthe user’s particular analysis or design problem. Furthermore, WISDEM is developed to use the Frameworkfor Unified Systems Engineering and Design of Wind Plants (FUSED-Wind) which has been co-developed byNREL and DTU Wind Energy with contributions from other organizations as well [26]. This framework helpsstandardize the flow of information in MDAO workflows for wind energy applications for improved modelinterchangeability and sharing of data. Underlying WISDEM and FUSED-Wind is OpenMDAO, a softwareenvironment to support MDAO developed by NASA Glenn Laboratories [22]. As mentioned previously,OpenMDAO supports optimization applications with many different disciplines and fidelity levels involved.

Figure 6: The Wind-Plant Integrated System Design and Engineering Model.

For the purposes of the RWT development, NREL was responsible for the development of the drivetraindesigns for both of the turbines. The two models from the WISDEM framework employed for the drivetraindesign are DriveSE that sizes the major load-bearing components of a geared drivetrain [27], and GeneratorSEthat can be used to design multiple types of generators including both synchronous, and induction-typegenerators [28]. Details of the drivetrain modeling can be found in the subsequent sections on individualturbine design.

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4 3.4-MW Land-Based Wind Turbine

Cp-Max was the tool mostly used in the development activities of the land-based wind turbine. Here, thedesign work aimed at developing a class 3A land-based wind turbine model with a rated electrical power of3.37 MW, a rated aerodynamic power of 3.6 MW, a rotor diameter of 130 m and a hub height of 110 m.These values were selected by the project partners with the expectation that they will establish as standardswithin the land-based wind energy market. The optimization was run for minimum COE, estimated by acost model developed at NREL [29].

4.1 Design Process

The wind turbine was designed against a set of critical design load cases (DLCs), selected to be run withinthe structural optimization loop of Cp-Max, including standard operating conditions in normal turbulence(1.1), operation under extreme turbulence (1.3), shut down cases in turbulent wind (2.1), and steady windwith gusts (2.3), as well as storm conditions (6.1, 6.2, 6.3) [17]. DLC 1.1 and DLC 1.3 were realized withthree turbulent seeds, while the others with one, for a total of 151 dynamic simulations.

The aerodynamic design included 24 optimization variables describing twist at eight stations, chord atnine stations, and the position of the seven airfoils along blade span. The structural design was based on 50variables parameterizing the skin, the two spar caps, the two webs, and the leading-edge (LE) and trailing-edge (TE) reinforcements at nine stations along blade span, as well as the diameter and wall thickness of tentower sectors. In this reference design, the mechanical properties of the composites were kept fixed, whilesweep curvature, angles in the composite fibers, and offset in the spar cap positions were all set to zero.After a total computational time of approximately 100 hours running on a workstation equipped with 56logical processors, Cp-Max converged to the solution that is presented here.

The main wind turbine characteristics are summarized in Table 2. Notably, the table reports the valuesof initial capital cost (ICC) and COE that drove the optimization. The next section presents all the detailsof the design in terms of rotor aerodynamics, rotor structure, hub, drivetrain, nacelle, tower, and controller.

Table 2: Summary of the configuration of the land-based wind turbine.

Data Value Data Value

Wind class IEC 3A Rated electrical power 3.37 MW

Rated aerodynamic power 3.60 MW DT & Gen. efficiency 93.6%

Hub height 110.0 m Rotor diameter 130.0 m

Cut-in 4 m/s Cut-out 25 m/s

Rotor cone angle 3.0 deg Nacelle uptilt angle 5.0 deg

Rotor solidity 4.09% Max Vtip 80.0 m/s

Blade mass 16,441 kg Tower mass 553 ton

Blade cost 120.9 k$ Tower cost 829.7 k$

Aerodynamic AEP 14.99 GWh Electrical AEP 13.94 GWh

ICC 4,142.1 k$ COE 44.18 $/MWh

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4.2 Rotor Aerodynamics

The rotor aerodynamic design of the land-based wind turbine was developed with a set of predefined airfoils,which are reported in Table 3 and whose coordinates and polars can be found in Appendix A.2 in Tables 21-67. The spanwise positions of each profile were automatically adjusted by the aerodynamic design procedure.In addition, a value of 2.6 m was assumed for the blade root diameter.

Table 3: Set of airfoils used in the rotor aerodynamic design of the 3.4-MW wind turbine.

Airfoil Thickness Airfoil Thickness

Root circle 0.0% FX77-W-500 50.0%

FX77-W-400 40.0% DU00-W2-350 35.0%

DU97-W-300 30.0% DU91-W2-250 25.0%

DU08-W-210 21.0% DU08-W-180 18.0%

The planar shape identified by Cp-Max as aerostructural optimum is shown in Fig. 7. The blade aero-dynamic shape is described by chord, twist, relative thickness, absolute thickness, pitch axis positioning,and prebend distributions along blade span as reported in Fig. 8. It is worth highlighting here that chordand prebend, reported respectively in Fig. 8a and Fig. 8f, were constrained by assumed maximum allowablevalues of 4.3 m and 2.5 m, respectively, chosen to ensure transportability. In addition, the aerodynamic op-timizer of Cp-Max discarded airfoil DU08-W-180, favoring thicker airfoils. As shown in Fig. 8c, the minimumrelative thickness along the blade is 21%, a value that guarantees a better trade-off between aerodynamicand structural performance compared to thinner profiles. Moreover, the blade is modeled with no sweep,while the non-monotonic distribution reported in Fig. 8e of the pitch axis positioning along blade span wasadjusted to guarantee a straight LE from blade root to blade tip.

Figure 7: View from the pressure side and from the LE of the land-based wind turbine blade.

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0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nondimensional Blade Coordinate from Root [-]

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

Ch

ord

[m

]

(a) Chord

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nondimensional Blade Coordinate from Root [-]

-5

5

10

15

20

Tw

ist

[de

g]

(b) Twist

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nondimensional Blade Coordinate from Root [-]

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Re

lative

Th

ickn

ess [

%]

(c) Relative thickness

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nondimensional Blade Length [-]

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

Ab

so

lute

Th

ickn

ess [

m]

(d) Absolute thickness

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nondimensional Blade Coordinate from Root [-]

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Pitch

Axis

[%

]

(e) Pitch axis positioning

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nondimensional Blade Coordinate from Root [-]

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

Pre

be

nd

[m

]

(f) Prebend

Figure 8: Aerodynamic blade shape of the land-based wind turbine.

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4.3 Rotor Structure

The structural design process employed the materials used in the blade of the INNWIND.EU 10-MW windturbine [30]. The data for the composite laminates are listed in Table 4. In terms of blade topology, thestructural components are the same as for a 2-MW wind turbine described in Ref. [14], i.e. a traditionalconfiguration with two spar caps and two webs running from 10% to 94% of blade span. Webs are modeledas straight and are placed perpendicular to the chord line at the point of maximum chord along blade span(η=0.26). In addition, LE and TE reinforcements are modeled running between 10% and 80% of blade span.The chordwise positions of spar caps and webs as well as the extensions from the LE and the TE of theLE and TE reinforcements were scaled linearly with the rotor diameter from the values of the 2-MW windturbine. These values are reported in Tables 35 and 36 in the Appendix. In addition, a lower bound of65 mm for the composite laminate at blade root was assumed to guarantee a sufficient thickness to host thebolted connections.

The structural optimization module of Cp-Max converged to the composite thicknesses reported in Ta-bles 37 and 38 and shown in Fig. 10. A panel-based formulation estimated the nonstructural masses sizingthe necessary core to prevent buckling of the sandwich panels in both the outer blade surface and in the twoshear webs. The thicknesses are reported in Table 39 and shown in Fig. 11.

For this blade structural layout, the 2-D cross sectional solver ANBA, which implements the theory ofGiavotto et al., 1983 [31], predicted the stiffness and mass properties listed in Tables 40, 41, 42 and 43. Themass distribution listed in Table 40 also included the distribution of non-structural masses (sandwich core,paint, resin uptake, bonding lines, lightning protection) predicted by Cp-Max. The structural characteristicsare expressed in the structural reference frame (see Fig. 12), whose axes are twisted with respect to theaerodynamic axes by the angle ∆Θ.

• T11 = edgewise shear stiffness [N ] along the xS axis;

• T22 = flapwise shear stiffness [N ] along the yS axis;

• EA = axial stiffness [N ];

• E11 = flapwise stiffness [Nm2];

• E22 = edgewise stiffness [Nm2];

• GJ = torsional stiffness [Nm2];

• Centroid = coordinates of the centroid with regard to the structural reference frame [m];

• ∆Θ = angle between the aerodynamic and the structural reference frames [deg];

• Shear Center = coordinates of the shear center with regard to the structural reference frame [m];

• Mass = masses [kg/m];

• J = moments of inertia [kgm2/m], along the axis normal to the section (i.e. polar inertia) and the twostructural axes, respectively;

• Center Of Mass = coordinates of the center of mass with regard to the structural reference frame [m];

The blade was modeled without point masses along blade span.

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0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nondimensional Blade Coordinate from Root [-]

-2

-1

1

2

3

4

Po

sitio

ns in

re

sp

ect

to B

lad

e P

itch

Axis

[m

] Planform Shape

Edge Reinforcements

Spar Cap Edges

First Shear Web

Second Shear Web

Figure 9: Positions along blade span of the various structural components.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nondimensional Blade Coordinate from Root [-]

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Th

ickn

ess [

mm

]

Outer Shell Skin

Spar Caps

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nondimensional Blade Coordinate from Root [-]

2

4

6

8

10

Th

ickn

ess [

mm

]Shear Webs Skin

LE Reinforcement

TE Reinforcement

Figure 10: Thicknesses of the structural components of the blade of the land-based wind turbine.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nondimensional Blade Coordinate from Root [-]

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Sa

nd

wic

h C

ore

Th

ickn

ess [

mm

]

Panel TE SS

Panel LE SS

Panel LE PS

Panel TE PS

(a) Outer Shell Panels

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nondimensional Blade Coordinate from Root [-]

10

20

30

40

50

Sa

nd

wic

h C

ore

Th

ickn

ess [

mm

]

First Shear Web

Second Shear Web

(b) Shear Webs Panels

Figure 11: Thicknesses of the core in the sandwich panels of the blade of the land-based wind turbine.

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yA

xA

xS

yS

θ

Δθ

ROTOR PLANE

Figure 12: Sectional references frames. Aerodynamic: xA, yA; structural: xS , yS .

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Table 4: Mechanical properties of the composite materials used in the blade.

ValueOuter Shell Skin Spar Caps Webs Skin TE-LE Reinf.

Triax GFRP UD GFRP Biax GFRP UD GFRP

E11 [MPa] 21790 42000 13920 41630E22 [MPa] 14670 12300 13920 14930v12 [-] 0.48 0.31 0.53 0.24G12 [MPa] 9413 3470 11500 5047σ11, tension [MPa] 480.4 868.0 223.2 876.1σ11, compression [MPa] 393.0 869.0 209.2 625.8σ22, tension [MPa] 90.4 53.7 223.2 74.0σ22, compression [MPa] 152.7 160.0 209.2 189.4τmax [MPa] 114.0 45.8 140.3 56.6ε11, tension [%] 2.20 2.19 1.60 2.10ε11, compression [%] 1.80 2.00 1.50 1.50ε22, tension [%] 0.62 0.49 1.60 0.50ε22, compression [%] 1.04 2.19 1.50 1.27γmax [%] 1.21 5.00 1.22 1.12Wohler exp. [-] 10 10 10 10fvf [-] 0.48 0.53 0.48 0.53ρepoxy [kg/m3] 1150 1180 1150 1150ρfabric [kg/m3] 2600 2620 2600 2600ρlaminate [kg/m3] 1845 1940 1845 1916$epoxy [$/kg] 4.67 4.67 4.67 4.67$fabric [$/kg] 2.97 2.11 2.97 2.11

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4.4 Hub, Drivetrain, Generator, and Nacelle Properties

In parallel to the design of rotor and tower obtained via Cp-Max, the design of hub and nacelle assemblywas carried out. For the hub, a simplified redesign was obtained thanks to empirical trends, which havebeen used to scale the mass and the moments of inertia. This resulted in a hub mass of 27.975 ton and amoment of inertia around the rotor axis of 300650 kg m2. The center of mass was assumed at the rotorcenter. A more detailed design of the nacelle assembly was instead developed by coupling two of NREL’ssystems engineering sizing tools: DriveSE and GeneratorSE [16]. Sections 4.4.1 and 4.4.2 elaborate on thedrivetrain and on the generator designs respectively, while the overall masses composing the nacelle assemblyare reported in Sect. 4.4.3.

4.4.1 Drivetrain

The aerodynamic loads measured at the hub were the main inputs to design a four-point suspension driv-etrain, a common configuration choice in the wind industry for turbines rated 2 MW and beyond. Thefour-point suspension is a separated design characterized by a main shaft supported by two main bearings.Torque arms resist the torque while the remaining loads travel to the bedframe via the main bearings. Themain bearings were assumed to be of standard spherical roller configurations. Fig. 13 shows the layout ofthe nacelle.

Figure 13: Drivetrain layout.

The gearbox was assumed to be a typical three-stage gearbox, with two-stage planetary and one parallelshaft arrangement. The high-speed shaft was coupled to a DFIG controlled by a partial-rated power electronicconverter. An uptower transformer was assumed to step up the generator voltage to the grid.

DriveSE employed analytical models for sizing the major load-bearing components (the low-speed shaft,main bearings gearbox, and bedplate) and provided mass properties for the overall nacelle including the yawsystem using system configuration parameters as well as the aerodynamic loads from the rotor. DriveSE ac-cepted maximum rotor loads measured at the hub and gearbox design inputs for main bearings, transformer,and gearbox location. The main shaft and bearing were sized first by determining the length from deflectionlimitations imposed by main bearings, which are selected based on shaft geometry. Each component withinDriveSE was designed based on a set of assumptions, design variables, and constraints for allowable stress(using industry-recommended safety factors), deflection (to ensure proper geometric alignment with bearing

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and gear-tooth meshing) and center of mass (CM) of nacelle to optimize each subcomponent for the mini-mum weight. The gearbox design was optimized for the minimum weight by optimizing the speed ratio ofeach stage, up to three stages, with different combinations of planetary and parallel stages. The bedplatesize was approximated as two parallel I-beams carrying the weight of the drivetrain components. The yawsystem was modelled with a friction plate bearing at the nacelle tower and several yaw motors. For moreinformation on the model formulation, interested readers should refer to the DriveSE model report [27].

4.4.2 Generator

The high-speed section of the gearbox was coupled to GeneratorSE that provided estimates for a DFIGoptimized for the drivetrain.

A decoupled approach [32] to independently optimize the designs of the drivetrain and the generator wasused, with the overall gear ratio used as the main parameter linking the two designs. The optimization wasbased on the premise that the lightest generator design resulted in the lightest nacelle mass. This decoupledoptimization accepts design variables to size the gearbox, the other mechanical elements and the generatorthrough a nested approach where the main components were sized with their own sub-optimization routines.This approach represents a more traditional design process that best reflects the current industry practice.

For the drivetrain, the overall gear ratio was chosen upfront to be 1:97. For the generator, the air-gap radius, core length, maximum slip, magnetic loading, and excitation were allowed to vary, satisfyingrequirements for minimum overall efficiency and terminal voltage.

Figure 14: DFIG module within GeneratorSE. Design dimensions and CAD illustration reproduced from [28].

Fig. 14 shows the CAD illustration of the main design dimensions of the DFIG as used by Genera-torSE [28]. For the given power rating, the high-speed shaft speed (determined by the gear ratio) wasthe fundamental element used to calculate the torque and the design dimensions required to overcome thetangential stress measured on the rotor of the generator.

4.4.3 Nacelle

Table 5 summarizes the mass properties of the main elements of the drivetrain and generator system. Theelectrical efficiency of the generator was assumed equal to 98.08%, while the mechanical efficiency of thedrivetrain system was assumed equal to 95.5%.

For the aeroelastic modeling, Cp-Max combined elastic beams and rigid bodies to represent the nacelleassembly. Each blade was connected via a rigid body to the hub, which was also modeled as rigid. The hubwas connected via a flexible shaft to the generator, which was in turn connected to a rigid body representing

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Table 5: Drivetrain properties.

Component Mass [ton]

Main bearing 1 4.08Main bearing 2 4.08Low speed shaft 26.55Gearbox 41.05Generator 16.89Transformer 10.4Bedplate 60.99HVAC system 0.28Nacelle cover 9.23Yaw system 4.46Overall nacelle 191.85

the nacelle. The nacelle was finally connected to the tower via the yaw system, which was modeled with aspring-damper system. The aeroelastic properties associated with the nacelle assembly are listed in Table 44.Please note that the stiffness of the equivalent beams was assumed to be artificially high.

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4.5 Tower Properties

The tower of the land-based wind turbine was modeled as a sequence of steel hollow conical sectors. Theproperties of the material are reported in Table 6. Notably, the density of the material was artificiallyincreased to account for some secondary structures such as ladders, elevator, external paint, etc. Thestructural design of the tower in terms of sector diameters and wall thicknesses are shown in Fig. 15 andreported in Table 45, while the resulting stiffness and mass properties are shown in Fig. 16 and reported inTable 46.

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Tower Coordinate Above Ground [m]

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Dia

me

ter

[m]

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Tower Coordinate Above Ground [m]

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Wa

ll T

hic

kn

ess [

mm

]

Figure 15: Structural design of the tower for the land-based wind turbine.

Table 6: Static and fatigue mechanical properties of the steel used in the tower of the 3.4-MW wind turbine.

Data Static Value Data Fatigue Value

Youngs Modulus [GPa] 210 Cycles number in S-N diagram at slope change [-] 5.00E+06Poisson Coefficient 0.3 Normal stress value in S-N diagram at slope change [MPa] 65.7Density [kg/m3] 8500 Slope of first part of S-N diagram [-] 3Yield Strength [MPa] 355 Slope of second part of S-N diagram [-] 5Ultimate Strength [MPa] 400 Cycles number in S-N diagram at cut-off [-] 1.00E+08

Shear Stress value in S-N diagram at cut-off [MPa] 46.2

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0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Tower Coordinate Above Ground [m]

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

Ma

ss [

kg

/m]

(a) Mass distribution

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Tower Coordinate Above Ground [m]

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

Po

lar

Mo

me

nt

of

Ine

rtia

[m

4]

(b) Polar moment of inertia distribution

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Tower Coordinate Above Ground [m]

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Stiff

ne

ss

105

Axial [MN]

Bending [MNm2]

Torsional [MNm2]

(c) Axial, bending and torsional stiffness distributions

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Tower Coordinate Above Ground [m]

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

Sh

ea

r S

tiff

ne

ss [

MN

]

104

(d) Shear stiffness distribution

Figure 16: Elastic properties of the tower for the land-based wind turbine.

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4.6 Control and Actuators

The design of the land-based wind turbine was supported by a model-based controller, which is describedin details in Ref. [33]. The controller used a constant tip speed ratio (TSR) - pitch strategy below ratedconditions (region II) and a constant power strategy above rated conditions (region III). It also assumed amaximum allowable blade tip speed of 80 m/s by imposing a region II1/2, where Cp was maximized whilemaintaining constant rotational speed Ω. An overview of the operational data of the rotor is reported inTable 7 and graphically shown in Fig. 17.

Table 7: Operational data of the rotor.

Data Value Data Value

Maximum Cp [-] 0.481 Pitch Rated [deg] 1.09TSR Rated [-] 8.16 Omega Rated [rpm] 11.75Torque Rated [MNm] 2.925 Max Tip Speed [m/s] 80.0Cut-in Wind Speed [m/s] 4.0 Cut-out Wind Speed [m/s] 25.0Wind Speed Region II1/2 [m/s] 9.3 Rated Wind Speed [m/s] 9.8Min Rotor Speed [rpm] 3.8 Max Rotor Speed [rpm] 12.9

The turbine employed collective pitch control with a maximum pitch rate of 7 deg/s and a maximumyaw rate of 0.25 deg/s. The pitch actuators were modelled as second order actuators with a natural circularfrequency ωn of 10 and a damping factor ζ of 0.8:

y + 2ζωy = ω2(x− y), (1)

where x is the actuator input and y the actuator output. The generator and the yaw actuator were insteadmodeled as first order systems:

τ y + y = Gx, (2)

where τ is the actuator time constant and G the output gain. τ and G were assumed equal to 0.01 and 1 inthe generator model and 0 and 1 in the yaw actuator respectively.

At the time of publication, a FAST8 model representing the land-based wind turbine model was generated.This model will be used by researchers in the area of control of wind turbines at the Technical University ofDelft and at the Technical University of Stuttgart to develop open-source advanced controllers.

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0 5 10 15 20 25

Wind Speed [m/s]

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

CP

[-]

(a) Power coefficient

0 5 10 15 20 25

Wind Speed [m/s]

5

10

15

20

25

30

Pitch

an

gle

[d

eg

]

(b) Pitch angle

0 5 10 15 20 25

Wind Speed [m/s]

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

TS

R [

-]

(c) Tip-speed ratio

0 5 10 15 20 25

Wind Speed [m/s]

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Om

eg

a [

rpm

]

(d) Rotor speed

0 5 10 15 20 25

Wind Speed [m/s]

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

Ae

rod

yn

am

ic T

orq

ue

[M

Nm

]

(e) Aerodynamic torque

0 5 10 15 20 25

Wind Speed [m/s]

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

Ae

rod

yn

am

ic P

ow

er

[MW

]

(f) Aerodynamic power

Figure 17: Operational data of the land-based wind turbine.

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4.7 Frequency Analysis

A frequency analysis of the land-based wind turbine was performed with the multibody-based aeroelasticsolver Cp-Lambda. The results of the simplified analysis, which does not include the whirling modes, arelisted in Table 8 and in Fig. 18.

Table 8: Natural frequencies of the land-based wind turbine. Legend: OoP - out-of-plane, IP - in-plane,asym. - asymmetrical, edge - edgewise, hor. - horizontal, vert. - vertical, FA - Fore-Aft, SS - Side-side.

Rotor speed Tower FA 1st Tower SS 1st Rotor 1st Rotor 1st Rotor 1st

OoP asym. yaw OoP asym. tilt collective OoP[rpm] [Hz] [Hz] [Hz] [Hz] [Hz]

0.00 0.305 0.310 0.601 0.622 0.66011.5 0.306 0.310 0.638 0.663 0.704

Rotor 1st Rotor 1st Drive-train Rotor 2nd Rotor 2nd

IP edge vert. IP edge hor. assembly OoP asym. yaw OoP asym. tilt0.00 0.809 0.813 1.552 1.623 1.66511.5 0.823 0.828 1.593 1.675 1.714

Rotor 2nd Tower SS 2nd Tower FA 2nd Rotor 2nd Rotor 2nd

collective OoP IP edge vert. IP edge hor.0.00 1.786 2.147 2.177 2.359 2.36811.5 1.843 2.150 2.190 2.392 2.401

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0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Rotor speed [rpm]

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

Fre

qu

en

cy [

Hz]

Figure 18: Simplified Campbell diagram for the land-based wind turbine. The horizontal lines represent themodes listed in Table 8.

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4.8 Load Assessment and Design Drivers

As discussed in Sect. 4.1, the design of the land-based turbine was obtained by running a subset of 151 aeroe-lastic simulations. The loads obtained during these simulations were used to size the various components.The most important design drivers that were identified are:

• Blade: Maximum tip deflection, equal to 10.3 m and 1.51 m in flapwise and edgewise directionsrespectively, drove the blade’s flapwise stiffness and therefore the design of the spar caps. A seconddesign driver was generated by natural frequency of the blade, which was imposed 16% above the3P frequency. As visible in Fig. 18, this design driver was active in influencing the blade structure,especially in the spar caps. In addition, fatigue damage determined the thickness of the skin of theshear webs and of the outer shell, while foam core was sized to prevent buckling of the sandwich panels.Ultimate loads did not generate any active design driver.

• Tower: Fatigue drove the thickness of the steel sections. In the lower section of the tower, diameterswere constrained by the upper bound of 6 m. Finally, in order of importance, buckling and ultimateloads were the following design drivers. These were not active however.

• Gearbox and Generator: The rated torque drove the design of the wind turbine gearbox and genera-tor. The design criteria for the gearbox was the surface durability recommended by the ISO/AGMAstandards. The key criteria for generator sizing was the maximum shear stress required at rated torqueon the generator rotor.

• Low-speed shaft and main bearings: The design of the main shaft and main bearings were driven byextreme rotor aerodynamic loads and gravity. The main shaft was designed to meet the requirementson deflections and rigidity. Stress calculations were performed for both upwind and downwind bearingsand bearings were selected with bore diameters that matched the shaft diameter.

A very limited list of key ultimate and fatigue loads is reported in Tables 47, 48, 49 and 50.

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5 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine

The overall characteristics of the offshore turbine designed for the IEA Wind Task 37 were based on thefeedback gained from the many users of the DTU 10-MW RWT, as well as the surveys carried out by the IEATask 37 project group. The turbine was developed to have a rated electrical power of 10 MW, and designedfor the IEC class 1A, but unlike the DTU 10-MW RWT, this turbine features a direct-drive generator.

5.1 Design Process

The wind turbine was not designed in a fully integrated manner, in that the rotor aerostructural designwas made first, using the DTU 10-MW RWT platform and overall loads envelope as guidance, followed bythe design of a new drivetrain. The new rotor design is in several ways based on the experience with thedesign process and use of the DTU 10-MW RWT, and the several design studies carried out after its release.However, contrary to the design of the DTU 10-MW RWT rotor, which was aerodynamically optimizedfollowed by the structural design, this design was developed using an integrated design tool, ensuring a morebalanced aerostructural design tailored to minimize loads.

Parameter Value Comment

Wind Regime IEC class 1A Same as DTU 10-MW RWTRotor Orientation Clockwise rotation - Upwind Same as DTU 10-MW RWTControl Variable Speed Same as DTU 10-MW RWT

Collective Pitch Same as DTU 10-MW RWTCut-in wind speed 4 m/s Same as DTU 10-MW RWTCut-out wind speed 25 m/s Same as DTU 10-MW RWTRated wind speed 11 m/s OptimizedRated electrical power 10 MW Same as DTU 10-MW RWTNumber of blades 3 Same as DTU 10-MW RWTRotor Diameter 198.0 OptimizedAirfoil series FFA-W3 Same as DTU 10-MW RWTHub Diameter 4.6 m Reduced from 5.4 mHub Height 119.0 m Same as DTU 10-MW RWTDrivetrain Direct-drive Changed from Medium Speed, Multiple-

Stage GearboxMinimum Rotor Speed 6.0 rpm Same as DTU 10-MW RWTMaximum Rotor Speed 8.68 rpm Constrained by max tip speedGearbox Ratio N/A Direct-driveMaximum Tip Speed 90.0 m/s Same as DTU 10-MW RWTHub Overhang 7.1 m Same as DTU 10-MW RWTShaft Tilt Angle 6.0 deg. Increased from 5 degRotor Precone Angle -4 deg. Increased from -2.5 degBlade Prebend 6.2 m Increased from 3.2 mBlade Mass 47,700 kg 12% increase from DTU 10-MW RWTNacelle Mass 542.600 kg See Section 5.5Tower Mass 628,442 kg Provisional, same as DTU 10-MW RWT

Table 9: Key parameters of the new 10-MW compared to the original DTU 10-MW RWT.

The rotor was designed to maximize AEP with blade length as a free parameter, subject to constraints onseveral load sensors, ensuring that these loads did not exceed the envelope of the original DTU 10-MW RWT.Additionally, necessary constraints on material strength and blade tip to tower clearance were enforced. Thedesign load cases used in the optimization loop were greatly simplified compared to a full IEC design loadbasis, but included gust response in normal operation and during fault situations, as well as standstill cases,all simulated without time-resolved turbulent inflow.

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The parameterized description of the aerodynamic and structural geometry of the blade used a total of52 design variables, all simultaneously active during the numerical optimization process. Seventeen relatedto the aerodynamic geometry, 34 related to the structural geometry, and one related to the power regulationof the turbine, namely the TSR. These design variables are summarized in Table 10.

Parameter # of DVs Comment

Chord 5 Root chord fixedTwist 4 Root twist fixedRelative thickness 4 Root and tip relative thickness fixedBlade prebend shape 3 -Blade length 1 -Tip-speed ratio 1 -TE uniax 3 Symmetric lower/Upper sideTE triax 3 Symmetric lower/Upper sideTrailing-panel triax 3 Symmetric lower/Upper sideSpar cap uniax 6 Symmetric lower/Upper sideLeading-panel triax 3 Symmetric lower/Upper sideLeading-panel uniax 3 Symmetric lower/Upper sideLE triax 3 Symmetric lower/Upper sideLE uniax 3 Symmetric lower/Upper sideSpar cap width 2 Linear taper from root to tipSpar cap offset upper 2 Linear offset from root to tipSpar cap offset lower 2 Linear offset from root to tipMold angle 1 Reference system angle for laying out spar cap and webs

Total 52

Table 10: Design variables used in the optimization.

The design is based on a converged optimization using IPOPT which after 120 major iterations did notimprove the objective function further. The overall design was not modified significantly in postprocessing,with only small smoothening of the root transition. The materials in the blade were also based directlyon the optimization results, with only minor smoothing, leaving the thicknesses of laminates as continuousquantities, and therefore not directly realizable.

5.2 Airfoil Data

Airfoil data for each of the FFA-W3 airfoils was generated for a target Reynolds number of Re = 10 × 106.To compute the aerodynamic coefficients in the range of -32 to 32 deg., the 2-D incompressible Navier-Stokessolver EllipSys2D was used [43, 44, 45]. The meshes were generated using the hyperbolic mesh generatorHypGrid2D [46], with 512 cells along the surface and 256 cells in the direction normal to the surface.Polars assuming fully turbulent and freely transitioning boundary layers were computed using the kω SSTturbulence model [47] and the Drela-Giles transition model [48] assuming a turbulence intensity of 0.1%.360-degree extrapolation was done using AirfoilPreppy [49]. 3-D corrections were not applied to the polarsduring the design process since the spanwise distribution of relative thickness was a free design variable. Notethat two additional polars were also computed for intermediate airfoils of thicknesses 27% and 33%. Thesewere added to ensure relatively smooth transitions in characteristics as function of airfoil relative thickness.

5.3 Rotor Aerodynamics

The blade planform is shown in Fig. 19, with plots of the spanwise distributions of chord, twist, relative andabsolute thicknesses, prebend, and chordwise offset as percentage of chord. Also included in the plots arethe equivalent quantities of the DTU 10-MW RWT for comparison. Fig. 20 shows the lofted shape of theblade seen from the pressure side and the LE.

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0 20 40 60 80 100Blade running length [m]

1

2

3

4

5

6

Chord length [m]

DTU 10MW RWTIEA-10.0-198

0 20 40 60 80 100Blade running length [m]

−15.0

−12.5

−10.0

−7.5

−5.0

−2.5

0.0

2.5

Bla

de tw

ist [

deg.

]

DTU 10MW RWTIEA-10.0-198

0 20 40 60 80 100Blade running length [m]

20

40

60

80

100

Relative thickness [%]

DTU 10MW RWTIEA-10.0-198

0 20 40 60 80 100Blade running length [m]

1

2

3

4

5

Abs

olute thickn

ess [m

]

DTU 10MW RWTIEA-10.0-198

0 20 40 60 80 100Blade radial coordiante [m]

−6

−5

−4

−3

−2

−1

Bla

de o

ut o

f pla

ne c

oord

inat

e [-]

DTU 10MW RWTIEA-10.0-198

0 20 40 60 80 100Blade running length [m]

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

Cho

rdw

ise

offs

et [-

]

DTU 10MW RWTIEA-10.0-198

Figure 19: Optimized 10-MW blade planform compared to the baseline DTU 10-MW RWT.

The optimized design achieves an 11% increase in blade length, with a significantly more slender chorddistribution. The twist distribution is very similar, which is a consequence of using the same airfoil family.The tip twist is, however, different with a sharp decrease in twist, which results in a reduction in loading.The relative thickness distribution favours the thinnest 21% airfoil on only the very outer part of the blade,increasing to 24% at 70 m blade length. At 40 m span, the relative thickness is 33%, significantly higherthan that of the DTU 10-MW RWT. Turning to the absolute thickness, it is evident that the optimizedblade has an overall lower thickness, which is possible thanks to the design being aerostructurally tailored toreduce peak loads, but also due to the fact that the static tip clearance was increased significantly throughincreased prebending of the blade, combined with a shaft tilt angle of 6 deg, and a rotor cone angle of 4deg, leading to a significantly more flexible blade. The chordwise offset of the cross-sections along the bladewas also a free parameter in the optimization. This degree of freedom is used to balance the torsional loadsand structural characteristics, in particular the shear center, which is further forward compared to the DTU

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Figure 20: View from the pressure side and from the LE of the offshore wind turbine blade.

10-MW RWT.

5.4 Rotor Structure

5.4.1 Structural Layout

The structural layout of the blade is fairly traditional, consisting of two main load-carrying spars placedaccording to a straight line connecting the root and the tip, along with reinforcement along the TE and LE.The blade has three shear webs, two attached to the main spars and one placed aft of these extending from3% to 50% span. In the terminology used in the parameterization scheme, the TE is also defined as a shearweb. Figs. 21 and 22 show a top view and tip view of the blade, respectively.

Spar cap widths Linear taper 1.44 m (r=9.6m) to 0.53 m (tip)TE panels width (upper+lower) Linear taper 0.80 m (root) to 0.2 m (tip)LE panel width (upper+lower) Linear taper 1.0 m (root) to 0.4 m (tip)Shear web angle relative to rotor plane 6.61 deg

Table 11: Overall properties of internal structure.

The internal structure is parameterized according to the schematics in Figs. 23 and 24. To define thestructural reference plane, the blade is first rotated by the so-called structural mold angle, defined positiveaccording to the right hand rule around an axis normal to, and centered at the blade root center. Thevertical reference plane is then formed that passes through the root center and the blade tip. Note thatthe structural mold rotation is applied on the lofted blade that includes both aerodynamic twist, prebend,and sweep. The spar caps are then placed on the suction side (SS) and pressure side (PS) with a givenhorizontal offset with respect to the reference plane, and with a given width. Likewise, the shear webs areplaced vertically with a given offset with respect to the reference plane. The width of the TE reinforcementis defined relative to the SS and PS TE points, respectively, and the LE reinforcement is placed relative tothe LE. The LE is defined as the point along the surface with maximum distance from the TE. The completedata to lay out the main structural components are provided in Appendix B.3.

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0.0 24.1 48.1 72.2 96.2

Top view - Mold orientation 6.6 deg.

Figure 21: Top view of the 10-MW blade showing internal structural geometry.

−0.05 0.00 0.05

−0.06

−0.04

−0.02

0.00

0.02

Tip view - mold orientation 6.6 deg.

Figure 22: Tip view of the 10-MW blade showing internal structural geometry.

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Figure 23: Schematic showing the geometric parameterisation of the blade structure for the 10-MW rotor,reporting 17 division points (DP) used to define the various laminate sequences along the profile.

Figure 24: Schematic showing the definition of the structural angle for the 10-MW rotor.

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5.4.2 Material Properties

The material properties used for the blade were those defined for the DTU 10-MW RWT (for more details,see [4]). Table 12 lists the apparent mechanical properties of the multidirectional plies used and Table 13lists the properties for the balsa core material.

Multidirectional Ply Uniax Biax Triax

Fiber volume fraction Vf 0.55 0.5 0.5 -

0 fibers 95 0 30 %

90 fibers 5 0 0 %

+45 fibers 0 50 35 %

−45 fibers 0 50 35 %

Young’s modulus E1 41.63 13.92 21.79 GPa

Young’s modulus E2 14.93 13.92 14.67 GPa

Shear modulus G12 5.047 11.50 9.413 GPa

Poisson’s ratio ν12 0.241 0.533 0.478 -

Shear modulus G13 = G23 5.04698 4.53864 4.53864 GPa

Mass density ρ 1915.5 1845.0 1845.0 kg/m3

Table 12: Fiber orientation and apparent mechanical properties of the multidirectional plies. Reproducedfrom [4].

Design strength properties are also defined for these materials and are listed in Table 14.

5.4.3 Material Layup

The material is placed in the blade according to regions that each have a chordwise extent given by thestructural layout described in the Section 5.4.1.

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Property Balsa direction Value

Young’s modulus E1 radial 0.050 [GPa]

Young’s modulus E2 tangential 0.050 [GPa]

Young’s modulus E3 axial 2.730 [GPa]

Shear modulus G12(a) radial-tangential 0.016 67 [GPa]

Shear modulus G13 radial-axial 0.150 [GPa]

Shear modulus G23 tangential-axial 0.150 [GPa]

Poisson’s ratio ν12 radial-tangential 0.5 [−]

Poisson’s ratio ν13 radial-axial 0.013 [−]

Poisson’s ratio ν23 tangential-axial 0.013 [−]

Mass density ρ 110 [kg/m3]

(a) Computed assuming trans. isotropy: G12 = E1/(2(1 + ν12)).

Table 13: Mechanical properties of balsa wood [52] [53]. The indices 1, 2, and 3 refer to the blade’slongitudinal, transverse, and out-of-plane direction, respectively. Reproduced from [4].

Multidirectional Ply Uniax Biax Triax

Longitudinal tensile failure strain εT1 2.10 1.60 2.20 %

Longitudinal compressive failure strain εC1 1.50 1.50 1.80 %

Table 14: Characteristic values of the longitudinal tensile and compressive strain to failure of the multidi-rectional plies (5% fractile values with a confidence level of 95%). Reproduced from [4].

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0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.00

20

40

60

80

100

Thickn

ess [m

m]

Trailing edge paneltriaxuniaxtriax

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.00

20

40

60

80

100

Thickn

ess [m

m]

Trailing paneltriaxuniaxbalsauniaxtriax

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.00

20

40

60

80

100

Thickn

ess [m

m]

Spar captriaxuniaxtriax

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.00

20

40

60

80

100Th

ickn

ess [m

m]

Leading paneltriaxuniaxbalsauniaxtriax

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.00

20

40

60

80

100

Thickn

ess [m

m]

Leading edge paneltriaxuniaxbalsauniaxtriax

Figure 25: Material stacking sequence for each region along the optimized blade. The x-axis represents thenon-dimensional blade span.

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5.5 Hub, Shaft, Nacelle, and Generator Properties

The nacelle assembly was designed combining the results of projects conducted at the Norwegian Universityof Science and Technology (NTNU) in Norway and at NREL in the U.S.. More specifically, the designsof hub and nacelle have been developed in a series of student projects conducted at NTNU [34, 35, 36].Based on these designs, a direct-drive generator was sized at NREL via the generator system engineeringdesign tool GeneratorSE [28]. The generator, whose design is based on a range of commercial direct-drivedesigns and implementations available in the industry at multimegawatt level [36], employs an outer rotordesign mounted upwind of the tower. The design includes permanent magnets (PM) mounted on an externalrotor with housing supported by the main shaft supported by two main bearings and by an additionalbearing mounted outside the nacelle nose. A sketch showing the tower top assembly is reported in Fig. 26.Tables 83, 84, and 85 report the equivalent point mass properties of the nacelle components and finallyTable 86 lists the equivalent elastic properties of the shaft.

Figure 26: A sketch of the nacelle layout of the 10-MW direct-drive wind turbine, not to scale with structuraldetails omitted. Blades (not shown), hub, shaft, and generator rotor rotate. Bearings are shaded grey.

The next sections briefly explain the design process behind the various components.

5.5.1 Hub, Shaft and Nacelle

The nacelle assembly of the 10-MW offshore wind turbine consists of two main shaft bearings and a bedplatedesign based on extreme loading from Ref. [36]. The highest acceptable equivalent stress in the componentwas set to 200 MPa under extreme aerodynamic loads measured during extreme turbulence conditions with

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a 50-year recurrence period. Ultimate loads were estimated to represent multi-axial loading under theseconditions, as suggested by the IEC 61400-1. Fig. 27 shows the CAD illustration of the final bedplatedesign.

Figure 27: A CAD illustration of the bedplate..

A basic lifetime estimation using highest encountered design loads obtained from DLC 1.3 was used todetermine the main shaft bearing solution. The loads from the aeroelastic simulations were converted intobearing forces, which consist of one axial force and two radial forces. These forces were assumed to bedirectly transmitted to the bedplate structure. Bearing load calculation followed the method described inthe DNV guidelines for wind turbine design. A paired fixed-floating configuration of a double-row taperedbearing and a spherical bearing was proposed. As the loads distributed on the bearings are significantlyhigher for the front fixed bearing, a smaller bearing is suggested for the floating bearing to reduce weightfor the bedplate and main shaft, overall having a significant impact on the tower head weight.

5.5.2 Direct-Drive Generator

NREL’s GeneratorSE [28] was used to design and optimize a 10-MW direct-drive synchronous generatoradapted from the work performed at NTNU [37]. The generator construction features an external rotorradial flux topology machine with surface-mounted PM. The stator design is realized with fractional slotlayout double-layer concentrated coils which allow the fundamental winding factor to be maximized. The

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outer rotor construction facilitates a simple and rugged structure allowing easy manufacture, short end-windings, and better heat transfer between windings and teeth [38].

The final design features an overall outer diameter of 10.5 m, a stack length of 1.77 m, and an efficiencyof 94.4%. The weight of the generator is estimated to be 357.3 tons, split between 187.7 tons for the innerstator and 169.6 for the outer rotor. The generator design is torque driven and is assumed to transmit thedriving torque directly to the bedplate structure. The generator rotor is assumed to load the main shaft andbedplate frame equally.

Figure 28: Outer rotor direct-drive generator. A CAD illustration.

The reference generator design (Fig. 28) is made of electromagnetically active and inactive parts. Themain elements are:

1. Stator yoke (back iron)

2. Stator teeth

3. Stator slot winding

4. Air gap

5. Permanent magnets

6. Rotor yoke (back iron)

7. Stator inner frame (structure with spokes)

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The estimates for the main dimensions of the machine including electromagnetic and structural propertieswere determined using a hybrid optimization approach combining analytic methods for electromagneticdesign and basic thermal design in GeneratorSE and in the commercial finite element software ANSYS for thestructural design. This design was an adaptation of NTNU’s original design created using SMartMotor (nowRolls Royce) SmartTool generator design software and was updated in order to provide 10 MW at the outputterminals when operated with the DTU 10-MW RWT rotor. The primary modification was an increase in thestack length to compensate for a reduction in rotor speed. Other main generator parameters for the activeparts were determined from conventional magnetic circuit laws and equivalent circuit models as describedin [38] and the generator design handbook [39]. These were optimized satisfying certain electromagneticperformance requirements, such as magnetic loading, and user-specified constraints on generator terminalvoltage and efficiency. GeneratorSE provided magnetically required minimum generator dimensions, suchas air gap diameter and core length, which were then used to generate, assess, and optimize parameterizedspoke arm support structures that provided the required structural integrity and air gap stiffness.

Figure 29: Electromagnetic (and structural) design parameters.

Figs. 29 and 30 show the simplified cross section for the active and structural parts of the generator.The electromagnetic design of the generator depends essentially on the operating modes, power, and outputvoltage range [39]. Due to these variations, to achieve a practical design the air gap radius, magnet height,pole count, stator slot height, yoke thicknesses, and tooth flux density were treated as design variables.The minimum required efficiency was set at 93% and the generator terminal voltage was constrained to beunder 5 kV. To determine the magnetically required generator diameter and stack length, a shear stress of40 kPa was assumed for the maximum rated torque required by the design. The minimum aspect ratio (corelength/Dg) was constrained at 15%. Several assumptions were made in deriving the slotting, winding designand pole count. The magnet width was considered to be at least 70% of the pole pitch. Stator slots weredesigned to accommodate double layer concentrated windings with 65% fill factor. A slot/pole combinationof 6/5 with q1=0.4 slots per pole per phase were considered to provide a reasonable trade-off for fundamentalwinding factor and the need to minimize peak-peak cogging torque [38]. The slot aspect ratio hs/bs waslimited to be in the range of 4-10. It should be mentioned that GeneratorSE did not consider detailed thermaldesign as part of the optimization process. However, to limit excessive temperature rise the winding currentdensity and the specific current loading were limited to 6 A/mm2 and 60 kA/mm2 respectively. Magneticloading on various parts of the machine was limited to be under 2 Tesla and the minimum required yokethickness was determined. To determine the efficiency, the fundamental core loss and copper losses were themain factors. In addition, the value of 300 W was assumed for specific losses from magnets. Stray losses dueto leakage flux contributed up to 20% of iron losses. Mechanical losses from bearings were neglected. Fig. 31

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Figure 30: Structural design parameters.

shows the flux density contour obtained from the optimized electromagnetic design using FEMM [40]. Themaximum difference in peak magnetic loading was found to be less than 20%.

To determine the structural mass and design (stator and rotor frame thicknesses and spoke dimensions),the magnetically required diameter and yoke thicknesses served as the base dimensions. The stator and rotorframes (thicknesses) and spokes served as additional reinforcements to the yoke. A structural optimizationwas carried out in ANSYS with frame thickness, number of spokes, spoke arm depths, and thickness as themain design variables to realize overall machine dimensions that withstood magnetic loading, torque andgravitational loading. The minimal required structural stiffness was ensured by limiting the maximum radialdeformation to be under 10% of the air gap length, axial deformation to be 20% of the core length, andtangential deformation to be under 0.05 in accordance with [41].

Fig. 32 shows the radial component of structural deformations for the rotor and stator frames obtainedfrom ANSYS. The rotor interior and stator exterior surfaces were subjected to a maximum normal stress of0.5 MPa from magnetic loading. The maximum radial deformations are within permissible limit of 0.51 mm.

Tables 87 and 88 list the optimized values for the design dimensions and key performance parameters,while Table 89 lists the physical parameters of the converter and transformer needed for an equivalent circuitrepresentation. The shunt impedance of the transformer is neglected.

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Figure 31: Analysis of the electromagnetic design.

Figure 32: Analysis of the structural design.

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5.6 Tower and Offshore Support Structure Properties

The tower, monopile foundation, and transition piece were designed based on frequency considerations. Theexpected first natural frequency of 0.24 Hz is placed above the most severe ocean-wave frequency band andbelow the 3P blade passing frequency, which is 0.3 Hz when the turbine is operating in low-wind conditions,see Fig. 16. The tower height was chosen such that the yaw bearing is located 115.63 m above the oceansurface, giving a hub height of 119 m, which matches the hub height of the DTU 10-MW RWT. The monopilefoundation has a diameter of 9 m, nearly the maximum that is available with todays installation technology.Table 15 lists some of the important dimensions and stiffness properties of the combined foundation (includingthe transition piece) and tower.

Table 15: Some key properties and dimensions of the tower and foundation.

Location z Do Di Ixx = Iyy J

[-] [m] [m] [m] [m4] [m4]

Yaw bearing 145.63 5.5 5.44 2.03 4.07134.55 5.79 5.73 2.76 5.52124.04 6.07 6.00 3.63 7.26113.54 6.35 6.26 4.67 9.35103.03 6.63 6.53 5.90 11.8092.53 6.91 6.80 7.33 14.6782.02 7.19 7.07 8.99 17.9871.52 7.46 7.34 10.9 21.8061.01 7.74 7.61 13.08 26.15

↑ 50.51 8.02 7.88 15.55 31.09tower 40.00 8.30 8.16 15.55 31.09

foundation 40.00 9.00 8.70 34.84 69.68↓ 38.00 9.00 8.70 35.74 71.48

36.00 9.00 8.70 36.66 73.3234.00 9.00 8.70 37.59 75.1832.00 9.00 8.69 38.54 77.08

waterline 30.00 9.00 8.69 39.51 79.0128.00 9.00 8.69 40.49 80.9726.00 9.00 8.69 41.48 82.9724.00 9.00 8.69 42.50 85.0022.00 9.00 8.69 43.53 87.0520.00 9.00 8.69 44.05 88.1016.00 9.00 8.80 28.09 56.1812.00 9.00 8.80 28.09 56.188.00 9.00 8.80 28.09 56.184.00 9.00 8.80 28.09 56.18

mudline 0.00 9.00 8.80 28.09 56.18-8.40 9.00 8.80 28.09 56.18-16.80 9.00 8.80 28.09 56.18-25.20 9.00 8.80 28.09 56.18-33.60 9.00 8.80 28.09 56.18-42.60 9.00 8.80 28.09 56.18

5.7 Controller Properties

The steady state operational data for the 10-MW turbine is listed in Table 16. The rotor operates with aminimum rotational speed of 6 rpm to avoid interference with the tower natural frequency, and reaches ratedrotational speed of 8.68 rpm at 8.5 m/s, resulting in a maximum nominal tip speed of 90 m/s. The rotor

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operates with a pitch setting of 0 degrees at design tip speed ratio, but operates with positive pitch at lowwind speeds in order to track maximum power. The rotor starts pitching at the rated wind speed of 10.75m/s.

Table 16: Operational summary of the 10-MW rotor.

Data Value Data Value

Maximum Cp [-] 0.49 Design Pitch [deg] 0.Design TSR [-] 10.58 Omega Rated [rpm] 8.68Rated Mechanical Power 10.6383 Max Tip Speed [m/s] 90.0Rated Torque [MNm] 11.7 Cut-out Wind Speed [m/s] 25.0Cut-in Wind Speed [m/s] 4.0 Rated Wind Speed [m/s] 10.75Wind Speed Region II1/2 [m/s] 8.5Min Rotor Speed [rpm] 6.0

Fig. 33 shows the rotor steady state performance and operation. Table 17 shows the operational data forthe rotor computed using HAWCStab2 [19] including deflections.

Table 17: Operational data of the 10-MW rotor.

Wind speed Pitch RPM

[m/s] [deg] [-]

4.00 2.589 6.0005.00 1.355 6.0006.00 0.000 6.1237.00 0.000 7.1448.00 0.000 8.1659.00 0.000 8.6849.50 0.000 8.684

10.00 0.000 8.68410.50 0.000 8.68411.00 2.633 8.68411.50 4.537 8.68412.00 5.975 8.68413.00 8.250 8.68414.00 10.121 8.68415.00 11.771 8.68416.00 13.280 8.68418.00 16.018 8.68420.00 18.513 8.68425.00 24.110 8.684

For the design loads evaluation of the 10-MW turbine, the Basic DTU Wind Energy controller [50] wasused. The controller is available open-source, see [51]. For detailed inputs used to evaluate the design loads,see Appendix B.6.

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5 10 15 20 25Wind speed [m/s]

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

Mec

h. Pow

er [k

W]

5 10 15 20 25Wind speed [m/s]

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Rotor Pow

er coe

fficien

t [-]

5 10 15 20 25Wind speed [m/s]

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Thrust [k

N]

5 10 15 20 25Wind speed [m/s]

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Rotor Thrus

t coe

fficien

t [-]

5 10 15 20 25Wind speed [m/s]

5

10

15

20

25

Blade

pitc

h [deg

]

5 10 15 20 25Wind speed [m/s]

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

Rotationa

l spe

ed [rpm

]

Figure 33: Steady-state performance and operation of the 10-MW rotor.

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5.8 Load Assessment

A full design load basis (according to [54]) was computed on the optimized rotor, including the new drivetrain,fitted on the tower designed for the DTU 10-MW RWT using HAWC2. The list of DLCs included are shownin Table 18. For the current report, all load cases of DLC 6x were excluded from the analysis. DLC6 considersvarious standstill cases at high wind speeds and a wide range of inflow angles. Some of these inflow angles areoutside the range for which a BEM code can be considered reliable and trustworthy. The underlying problemis that for example in DLC 62 some inflow cases have large yaw errors, and the resulting load simulationssuffer from very high edgewise loading due to an edgewise standstill instability. However, the simplified flowsolver is based on 2-D airfoil characteristics and although dynamic stall effects are included, unsteady 3-Dflow phenomena (which could determine the flow characteristics) are not included. From a practical point ofview one could work around these issues by either having slightly different pitch angles for each of the blades(instead of all blades pitch to feather, or 90 degrees), or carefully select the turbulent seeds such that no edgewise instabilities are observed. Resolving these issues form a practical modelling perspective is referred tofuture work. Also studying standstill blade vibrations with higher fidelity FSI (fluid-structure-interaction)solvers is necessary in order to investigate if these standstill vibrations can be reproduced.

The load analysis is presented by means of load envelopes and their projection on a set of given angles(see Figs. 34, 35 and 36). The advantage of this process is that a transparent set of loads at a fixed numberof angles can be considered. However, since this process is conservative in nature, and depending on theshape of the load cloud, this can result in a much larger load than actually observed. This can be clearlyillustrated in Fig. 34 for the blade root bending moment. The tabulated projected load envelopes for allblade stations and tower base/top are given in Appendix B.8.

The load envelopes in Figs. 34, 35 and 36 can be summarized as follows:

• The flapwise and edgewise blade root loads are dominated by DLC 1.3 (normal operation, extremeturbulence).

• The tower base fore-aft loads are dominated by DLC 2.x and DLC 4.x, respectively, while the side-sideloads are dominated by DLC 1.x.

• The tower top fore-aft loads are dominated by DLC 1.x while the side-side loads are dominated byDLC 2.x.

Tower clearance is evaluated according to the DNVGL-ST-0376 Rotor blades for wind turbines standard,for which it was assumed that the the necessary measures are taken to allow the clearance to be 20% duringoperation, compared to the clearance in the unloaded state (see Section 2.5.11 of the DNVGL-ST-0376standard).

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Table 18: Considered Design Load Cases from the IEC standard according to [54]. Note that DLC6x isexcluded.

Name Safety Description Turb Seeds Gust Faultfactor

DLC12 1.00 Normal production NTM 6 None NoneDLC13 1.35 Normal production ETM 6 None NoneDLC14 1.35 Normal production None None ECD NoneDLC15 1.35 Normal production None None EWS NoneDLC21 1.35 Grid loss NTM 4 None Grid loss at 10sDLC22y 1.10 Extreme yaw error NTM 1 None Abnormal yaw errorDLC22b 1.10 One blade stuck at min. angle NTM 12 None 1 blade at fine pitchDLC23 1.10 Grid loss None None EOG Grid loss at three

different timesDLC24 1.35 Production in large yaw error NTM 3 None Large yaw errorDLC31 1.00 Start-up None None None NoneDLC32 1.35 Start-up at four diff. times None None EOG NoneDLC33 1.35 Start-up in EDC None None EDC NoneDLC41 1.00 Shut-down None None None NoneDLC42 1.35 Shut-down at six diff. times None None EOG NoneDLC51 1.35 Emergency shut-down NTM 12 None NoneDLC61 1.35 Parked in extreme wind 0.11 6 None NoneDLC62 1.10 Parked grid loss 0.11 1 None NoneDLC63 1.35 Parked with large yaw error 0.11 6 None NoneDLC64 1.00 Parked NTM 6 None NoneDLC81 1.50 Maintenance NTM 6 None Maintenance

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−6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6

Mx [kNm] (flap) ×104

−6

−4

−2

2

4

6

My[kNm](edge)

×104 Section at 0.000m (blade root coordinates)

dlc1

dlc2

dlc3

dlc4

dlc5

dlc8

Figure 34: Loads envelope at blade root. Black star refers to the projected load.

−3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

Mx [kNm] (for-aft) ×105

−3

−2

−1

1

2

3

My[kNm](side-side)

×105 Tower base

dlc1

dlc2

dlc3

dlc4

dlc5

dlc8

Figure 35: Loads envelope at tower bottom. Black star refers to the projected load.

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−0.75 −0.50 −0.25 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75

Mx [kNm] (for-aft) ×105

−0.75

−0.50

−0.25

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

My[kNm](side-side)

×105 Tower top

dlc1

dlc2

dlc3

dlc4

dlc5

dlc8

Figure 36: Loads envelope at tower top. Black star refers to the projected load.

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6 Conclusions

This report documented the development of the first two in a series of RWTs from the IEA Wind Task 37on integrated wind energy research and development. The turbines were designed to align with currentcommercial wind turbines available in production, a low-wind-speed land-based 3.4-MW turbine and anoffshore 10-MW turbine. As technology changes, new turbines will be developed to reflect the state of the art.All the turbine documentation and detailed design data is available from the organization IEAWindTask37.

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Acknowledgments

This work has benefited from all activities related to IEA Wind Task 37, and the authors would like to thankall partners involved in the project for their efforts.

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[2] Campbell S. Ten of the Biggest Turbines. Windpower Monthly https://www.windpowermonthly.com/

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[4] Bak C, Zahle F, Bitsch R, et al. Description of the DTU 10-MW Reference Wind Turbine. DTU WindEnergy ReportI0092, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, 2013.

[5] Dykes K, Rethore PE, Zahle F, Merz K. Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. IEATask 37 Final Proposal, 2015. https://sites.google.com/site/ieawindtask37/.

[6] Hand MM, Simms DA, Fingersh LJ, Jager DW, Cotrell JR, Schreck S, Larwood SM. Unsteady Aero-dynamics Experiment Phase VI: Wind Tunnel Test Configurations and Available Data Campaigns.NREL/TP-500-29955. December, 2001. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/29955.pdf

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[15] Zahle F, et al. HAWTOpt2 Documentation. 2017. https://gitlab.windenergy.dtu.dk/HAWTOpt2.

[16] Dykes K, Ning SA, Graf P, et al. WISDEM 0.1.0 Documentation. 2017.http://wisdem.github.io/WISDEM/

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[18] Larsen T J and Hansen A M 2014 How 2 HAWC2, the user’s manual Tech. Rep. Ris-R-1597(ver.4-5)(EN) Ris National Laboratory www.hawc2.dk

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[20] Blasques JP, Stolpe M. 2012 Composite Structures 94 3278 – 3289 ISSN 0263-8223

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[27] Guo Y, King R, Parsons T, et al. DriveSE 0.1.0 Documentation. 2015.http://wisdem.github.io/DriveSE/.

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[29] Fingersh L, Hand M, Laxson A. Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model. Technical ReportNREL/TP-500-40566, 2006.

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[33] Bottasso CL, Croce A, Nam Y, Riboldi CED. Power curve tracking in the presence of a tip speedconstraint. Renewable Energy, 2012;40(1):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2011.07.045

[34] Khan MA. Design of rotor hub for NOWITECH 10MW reference wind turbine. MS Thesis, NorwegianUniversity of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 2012.

[35] Singh Klair S. Design of Nacelle and Rotor Hub for NOWITECH 10MW Reference Turbine. MS Thesis,Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 2013.

[36] Smith EB. Design AV Nacelle for EN 10 MW Vind Turbin. MS Thesis, Norwegian University of Scienceand Technology, June 2012.

[37] Liseth HE, Nilssen R. 10MW Reference Wind Turbine. Student project at NTNU, 2011 Symposium,AIAA SciTech Forum, (AIAA 2018-1000).

[38] Hung VX. Modeling of exterior rotor permanent magnet machines with concentrated windings. PhDThesis, TU Delft, The Netherlands, 2012.

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[41] McDonald AS. Structural Analysis of Low Speed, High Torque Electrical Generators for Direct DriveRenewable Energy Converters. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2008.

[42] Merz K. Pitch actuator and generator models for wind turbine control system studies. SINTEF EnergyResearch, Trondheim, Norway, 2015.

[43] Michelsen J. Basis3D - a Platform for Development of Multiblock PDE Solvers, Tech. Rep. AFM 92-05,Department of Fluid Mechanics, Technical University of Denmark, 1992.

[44] Michelsen J. Block structured multigrid solution of 2D and 3D elliptic PDE’s, Tech. Rep. AFM 94-06,Department of Fluid Mechanics, Technical University of Denmark, 1994.

[45] Sørensen N. General purpose flow solver applied to flow over hills, Ph.D. thesis, . Risø National Labo-ratory, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, 1995.

[46] Sørensen N. HypGrid2D. A 2-d mesh generator, Tech. Rep. Ris-R-1035(EN), Risø National Laboratory,1998.

[47] Menter F. Zonal Two Equation Kappa-Omega Turbulence Models for Aerodynamic Flows, 24th Fluiddynamics conference, 1993.

[48] Drela M, Giles MB. Viscous-inviscid analysis of transonic and low Reynolds number airfoils. AIAAJournal, 25(10):1347–1355, 1987.

[49] https://github.com/WISDEM/AirfoilPreppy

[50] Hansen MH, Henriksen LC. Basic DTU Wind Energy controller. Technical Report DTU Wind EnergyE-0018, Technical University of Denmark, 2013.

[51] Hansen MH, et al. 2018. https://github.com/DTUWindEnergy/BasicDTUController

[52] Ashby MF. Materials Selection in Mechanical Design - Fourth Edition. Elsevier, 2011.

[53] Easterling KE, Harrysson R, Gibson LJ, Ashby MF. On the mechanics of balsa and other woods.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 1982;383(1784):31-41. doi: 10.1098/rspa.1982.0118

[54] Hansen MH, Thomsen K, Natarajan Anand, Barlas A. Design LoadBasis for Onshore Turbines. DTU Wind Energy Report No. E-0133,http://orbit.dtu.dk/files/126478218/DTUOffshoreDesignLoadBasisRev0.pdf

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AppendicesThese sections contain the necessary data for modeling both the 3.4-MW land-based model and the 10-MWoffshore model aerodynamically and structurally. The data is also available in digital form on Github athttps://github.com/IEAWindTask37/IEA-3.4-130-RWT and https://github.com/IEAWindTask37/IEA-10.

0-198-RWT, including aeroelastic models equipped with open-source controllers. Should any inconsistenciesin the data be identified, the digital versions will be updated. Therefore, always refer to the digital data forthe latest versions.

A Land-Based Reference Turbine Detailed Properties and Loads

A.1 Blade Aerodynamic Shape

Table 19: Aerodynamic shape of the land-based wind turbine blade - Part I.

η Chord Twist Rel. Thick Abs. Thick. PreBend Sweep Pitch Ax. Aero. Center Ax.

[-] [mm] [deg] [%] [mm] [mm] [mm] [%] [%]

0.000 2600.0 20.00 100.00 2600.0 0.0 0.0 50.00 50.000.010 2600.0 19.87 100.00 2600.0 0.0 0.0 49.65 50.000.020 2600.0 19.73 100.00 2600.0 0.0 0.0 49.30 50.000.030 2620.6 19.56 99.12 2597.6 0.0 0.0 48.57 49.480.040 2680.1 19.39 96.68 2591.1 0.0 0.0 47.16 48.060.050 2776.7 19.20 92.96 2581.1 0.0 0.0 45.19 45.920.060 2910.6 18.99 88.25 2568.6 0.0 0.0 42.80 43.240.070 3032.4 18.76 82.84 2512.0 0.0 0.0 40.78 40.220.080 3155.4 18.51 77.01 2430.1 0.0 0.0 38.91 37.040.100 3400.0 17.94 65.28 2219.4 0.0 0.0 35.57 30.940.120 3618.0 17.07 55.34 2002.0 1.3 0.0 32.93 26.440.140 3803.9 15.81 49.44 1880.6 5.5 0.0 30.84 25.000.160 3958.7 14.37 45.94 1818.7 10.9 0.0 29.18 25.000.180 4083.2 12.95 43.11 1760.5 17.5 0.0 27.85 25.000.200 4178.5 11.75 40.96 1711.4 25.3 0.0 26.78 25.000.220 4245.5 10.73 39.44 1674.3 34.4 0.0 25.93 25.000.240 4285.1 9.71 38.23 1638.3 44.9 0.0 25.27 25.000.260 4298.4 8.71 37.23 1600.2 56.7 0.0 24.77 25.000.280 4286.7 7.74 36.38 1559.4 69.9 0.0 24.42 25.000.300 4252.0 6.81 35.64 1515.3 84.6 0.0 24.19 25.000.320 4196.1 5.93 34.96 1467.0 100.8 0.0 24.08 25.000.340 4121.1 5.12 34.34 1415.2 118.7 0.0 24.08 25.000.360 4028.7 4.39 33.79 1361.2 138.1 0.0 24.18 25.000.380 3921.1 3.75 33.29 1305.3 159.3 0.0 24.38 25.000.400 3800.0 3.21 32.83 1247.5 182.3 0.0 24.68 25.000.420 3667.7 2.76 32.39 1188.1 207.0 0.0 25.08 25.000.440 3527.8 2.38 31.97 1127.8 233.9 0.0 25.56 25.000.460 3384.0 2.05 31.54 1067.4 262.7 0.0 26.11 25.000.480 3240.1 1.77 31.10 1007.6 293.7 0.0 26.72 25.000.500 3100.0 1.53 30.62 949.3 326.9 0.0 27.34 25.000.520 2966.8 1.32 30.10 893.0 362.5 0.0 27.96 25.000.540 2841.2 1.13 29.51 838.5 400.6 0.0 28.55 25.000.560 2723.1 0.95 28.86 785.9 441.3 0.0 29.13 25.000.580 2612.7 0.78 28.16 735.8 484.7 0.0 29.67 25.00

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Table 20: Aerodynamic shape of the land-based wind turbine blade - Part II.

η Chord Twist Rel. Thick Abs. Thick. PreBend Sweep Pitch Ax. Aero. Center Ax.

[-] [mm] [deg] [%] [mm] [mm] [mm] [%] [%]

0.600 2509.8 0.60 27.45 688.9 530.9 0.0 30.16 25.000.620 2414.5 0.42 26.75 645.8 580.3 0.0 30.60 25.000.640 2326.9 0.27 26.08 606.8 632.8 0.0 30.98 25.000.660 2246.8 0.13 25.47 572.3 688.8 0.0 31.28 25.000.680 2174.3 0.01 24.96 542.6 748.3 0.0 31.49 25.000.700 2109.5 -0.11 24.47 516.1 811.8 0.0 31.59 25.000.720 2052.3 -0.22 23.97 491.9 879.1 0.0 31.79 25.000.740 2002.8 -0.34 23.46 469.9 951.1 0.0 31.73 25.000.760 1960.9 -0.47 22.98 450.5 1027.4 0.0 31.57 25.000.780 1926.6 -0.60 22.51 433.7 1109.0 0.0 31.26 25.000.800 1900.0 -0.75 22.09 419.7 1195.8 0.0 30.80 25.000.820 1879.2 -0.91 21.72 408.1 1288.4 0.0 30.21 25.000.840 1854.9 -1.07 21.41 397.1 1387.4 0.0 29.56 25.000.860 1816.1 -1.24 21.18 384.6 1493.1 0.0 28.87 25.000.880 1751.5 -1.45 21.04 368.5 1606.2 0.0 28.24 25.000.900 1650.0 -1.70 21.00 346.5 1727.8 0.0 27.67 25.000.920 1500.5 -2.05 21.00 315.1 1858.3 0.0 27.25 25.000.940 1291.9 -2.54 21.00 271.3 1998.7 0.0 26.92 25.000.960 1013.1 -3.14 21.00 212.7 2150.5 0.0 26.71 25.000.980 652.8 -3.84 21.00 137.1 2315.1 0.0 26.44 25.001.000 200.0 -4.62 21.00 42.0 2500.0 0.0 25.00 25.00

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A.2 Airfoil Data

Table 21: Airfoil shape - Root circle

ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

1 1.0000 0.0000 26 0.2132 0.4096 51 0.2966 -0.45682 0.9981 0.0436 27 0.1786 0.3830 52 0.3372 -0.47283 0.9924 0.0868 28 0.1464 0.3536 53 0.3790 -0.48514 0.9830 0.1294 29 0.1170 0.3214 54 0.4218 -0.49385 0.9698 0.1710 30 0.0904 0.2868 55 0.4651 -0.49886 0.9532 0.2113 31 0.0670 0.2500 56 0.5087 -0.49997 0.9330 0.2500 32 0.0468 0.2113 57 0.5523 -0.49738 0.9096 0.2868 33 0.0302 0.1710 58 0.5954 -0.49089 0.8830 0.3214 34 0.0170 0.1294 59 0.6378 -0.480610 0.8536 0.3536 35 0.0076 0.0868 60 0.6792 -0.466811 0.8214 0.3830 36 0.0019 0.0436 61 0.7192 -0.449412 0.7868 0.4096 37 0.0000 0.0000 62 0.7575 -0.428613 0.7500 0.4330 38 0.0001 -0.0087 63 0.7939 -0.404514 0.7113 0.4532 39 0.0027 -0.0523 64 0.8280 -0.377415 0.6710 0.4698 40 0.0092 -0.0954 65 0.8597 -0.347316 0.6294 0.4830 41 0.0194 -0.1378 66 0.8886 -0.314717 0.5868 0.4924 42 0.0332 -0.1792 67 0.9145 -0.279618 0.5436 0.4981 43 0.0506 -0.2192 68 0.9373 -0.242419 0.5000 0.5000 44 0.0714 -0.2575 69 0.9568 -0.203420 0.4564 0.4981 45 0.0955 -0.2939 70 0.9728 -0.162821 0.4132 0.4924 46 0.1226 -0.3280 71 0.9851 -0.121022 0.3706 0.4830 47 0.1527 -0.3597 72 0.9938 -0.078223 0.3290 0.4698 48 0.1853 -0.3886 73 0.9988 -0.034924 0.2887 0.4532 49 0.2204 -0.4145 74 1.0000 0.000025 0.2500 0.4330 50 0.2576 -0.4373

IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (68)

Table 22: Airfoil shape - FX77-W-500

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

1 1.0000 -0.0594 18 0.3634 0.2452 35 0.0016 -0.0880 52 0.4486 -0.24662 0.9950 -0.0044 19 0.3230 0.2373 36 0.0062 -0.0991 53 0.4931 -0.24993 0.9900 0.0556 20 0.2843 0.2256 37 0.0140 -0.1143 54 0.5386 -0.25114 0.9820 0.1056 21 0.2476 0.2122 38 0.0248 -0.1257 55 0.5850 -0.25175 0.9603 0.1129 22 0.2129 0.1958 39 0.0386 -0.1383 56 0.6319 -0.24966 0.9148 0.1282 23 0.1803 0.1784 40 0.0553 -0.1484 57 0.6792 -0.24667 0.8685 0.1444 24 0.1502 0.1582 41 0.0749 -0.1602 58 0.7267 -0.24138 0.8216 0.1596 25 0.1225 0.1380 42 0.0974 -0.1700 59 0.7743 -0.23519 0.7743 0.1755 26 0.0974 0.1155 43 0.1225 -0.1809 60 0.8216 -0.225710 0.7267 0.1903 27 0.0749 0.0938 44 0.1502 -0.1902 61 0.8685 -0.214811 0.6792 0.2054 28 0.0553 0.0703 45 0.1803 -0.2003 62 0.9148 -0.200212 0.6319 0.2189 29 0.0386 0.0489 46 0.2129 -0.2086 63 0.9603 -0.186113 0.5850 0.2322 30 0.0248 0.0263 47 0.2476 -0.2174 64 0.9800 -0.173414 0.5386 0.2426 31 0.0140 0.0069 48 0.2843 -0.2246 65 0.9900 -0.124415 0.4931 0.2498 32 0.0062 -0.0147 49 0.3230 -0.2319 66 1.0000 -0.084416 0.4486 0.2517 33 0.0016 -0.0333 50 0.3634 -0.237517 0.4053 0.2506 34 0.0000 -0.0644 51 0.4053 -0.2430

Table 23: Airfoil shape - FX77-W-400

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

1 1.0000 -0.0466 20 0.3945 0.1998 39 0.0000 -0.0516 58 0.3945 -0.19992 0.9950 -0.0016 21 0.3589 0.2014 40 0.0012 -0.0704 59 0.4309 -0.20093 0.9800 0.0171 22 0.3243 0.2005 41 0.0050 -0.0793 60 0.4680 -0.20144 0.9647 0.0255 23 0.2907 0.1962 42 0.0112 -0.0914 61 0.5055 -0.19975 0.9353 0.0344 24 0.2584 0.1898 43 0.0198 -0.1006 62 0.5434 -0.19736 0.9044 0.0444 25 0.2275 0.1804 44 0.0308 -0.1106 63 0.5814 -0.19317 0.8721 0.0547 26 0.1981 0.1698 45 0.0443 -0.1187 64 0.6194 -0.18818 0.8385 0.0662 27 0.1703 0.1566 46 0.0600 -0.1281 65 0.6573 -0.18059 0.8039 0.0778 28 0.1443 0.1428 47 0.0779 -0.1360 66 0.6948 -0.171810 0.7683 0.0903 29 0.1201 0.1266 48 0.0980 -0.1447 67 0.7319 -0.160211 0.7319 0.1026 30 0.0980 0.1104 49 0.1201 -0.1521 68 0.7683 -0.148812 0.6948 0.1155 31 0.0779 0.0924 50 0.1443 -0.1602 69 0.8039 -0.137413 0.6573 0.1276 32 0.0600 0.0750 51 0.1703 -0.1669 70 0.8385 -0.127314 0.6194 0.1404 33 0.0443 0.0562 52 0.1981 -0.1740 71 0.8721 -0.117815 0.5814 0.1522 34 0.0308 0.0391 53 0.2275 -0.1797 72 0.9044 -0.109616 0.5434 0.1643 35 0.0198 0.0210 54 0.2584 -0.1855 73 0.9353 -0.102217 0.5055 0.1751 36 0.0112 0.0056 55 0.2907 -0.1900 74 0.9647 -0.096118 0.4680 0.1858 37 0.0050 -0.0118 56 0.3243 -0.1944 75 0.9925 -0.090519 0.4309 0.1941 38 0.0012 -0.0267 57 0.3589 -0.1973 76 1.0000 -0.0616

66

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Table 24: Airfoil shape - DU00-W2-350

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

1 1.0000 0.0050 41 0.2252 0.1613 81 0.0045 -0.0272 121 0.4193 -0.17272 0.9893 0.0082 42 0.2110 0.1591 82 0.0062 -0.0321 122 0.4338 -0.17003 0.9731 0.0130 43 0.1971 0.1566 83 0.0082 -0.0370 123 0.4485 -0.16694 0.9526 0.0190 44 0.1836 0.1537 84 0.0106 -0.0420 124 0.4633 -0.16345 0.9305 0.0254 45 0.1704 0.1505 85 0.0134 -0.0471 125 0.4781 -0.15946 0.9080 0.0320 46 0.1577 0.1469 86 0.0167 -0.0524 126 0.4931 -0.15507 0.8854 0.0387 47 0.1453 0.1431 87 0.0203 -0.0577 127 0.5085 -0.15018 0.8628 0.0454 48 0.1334 0.1389 88 0.0245 -0.0632 128 0.5241 -0.14479 0.8400 0.0522 49 0.1219 0.1345 89 0.0292 -0.0688 129 0.5402 -0.138710 0.8169 0.0592 50 0.1109 0.1298 90 0.0347 -0.0747 130 0.5569 -0.132211 0.7937 0.0662 51 0.1005 0.1249 91 0.0407 -0.0807 131 0.5744 -0.125012 0.7707 0.0731 52 0.0907 0.1199 92 0.0475 -0.0869 132 0.5925 -0.117213 0.7479 0.0799 53 0.0815 0.1146 93 0.0549 -0.0932 133 0.6114 -0.108814 0.7252 0.0866 54 0.0728 0.1093 94 0.0630 -0.0994 134 0.6314 -0.099715 0.7029 0.0932 55 0.0647 0.1038 95 0.0717 -0.1057 135 0.6524 -0.090116 0.6809 0.0996 56 0.0571 0.0982 96 0.0811 -0.1118 136 0.6738 -0.080217 0.6590 0.1058 57 0.0501 0.0926 97 0.0909 -0.1179 137 0.6948 -0.070518 0.6376 0.1118 58 0.0436 0.0869 98 0.1013 -0.1237 138 0.7147 -0.061419 0.6165 0.1175 59 0.0376 0.0811 99 0.1122 -0.1293 139 0.7337 -0.053020 0.5957 0.1230 60 0.0321 0.0754 100 0.1237 -0.1348 140 0.7517 -0.045321 0.5752 0.1282 61 0.0272 0.0697 101 0.1357 -0.1400 141 0.7689 -0.038222 0.5549 0.1331 62 0.0228 0.0640 102 0.1482 -0.1450 142 0.7855 -0.031723 0.5350 0.1377 63 0.0188 0.0585 103 0.1612 -0.1498 143 0.8013 -0.025824 0.5155 0.1420 64 0.0153 0.0531 104 0.1745 -0.1542 144 0.8165 -0.020625 0.4963 0.1460 65 0.0123 0.0477 105 0.1882 -0.1583 145 0.8311 -0.016026 0.4773 0.1496 66 0.0096 0.0425 106 0.2023 -0.1621 146 0.8452 -0.012027 0.4585 0.1529 67 0.0074 0.0375 107 0.2167 -0.1656 147 0.8587 -0.008528 0.4400 0.1559 68 0.0055 0.0326 108 0.2313 -0.1687 148 0.8719 -0.005529 0.4216 0.1585 69 0.0040 0.0277 109 0.2460 -0.1714 149 0.8847 -0.003130 0.4036 0.1608 70 0.0028 0.0226 110 0.2609 -0.1737 150 0.8972 -0.001131 0.3858 0.1627 71 0.0018 0.0173 111 0.2758 -0.1757 151 0.9094 0.000432 0.3684 0.1642 72 0.0010 0.0122 112 0.2907 -0.1772 152 0.9212 0.001433 0.3513 0.1654 73 0.0004 0.0076 113 0.3056 -0.1784 153 0.9325 0.002034 0.3345 0.1662 74 0.0001 0.0034 114 0.3204 -0.1791 154 0.9432 0.002235 0.3180 0.1666 75 0.0000 -0.0004 115 0.3350 -0.1794 155 0.9533 0.002036 0.3017 0.1666 76 0.0001 -0.0042 116 0.3493 -0.1794 156 0.9631 0.001337 0.2857 0.1663 77 0.0005 -0.0082 117 0.3633 -0.1789 157 0.9724 0.000338 0.2700 0.1656 78 0.0012 -0.0127 118 0.3770 -0.1780 158 0.9818 -0.001139 0.2547 0.1645 79 0.0021 -0.0174 119 0.3908 -0.1767 159 0.9911 -0.002940 0.2398 0.1631 80 0.0032 -0.0223 120 0.4049 -0.1749 160 1.0000 -0.0050

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IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (70)

Table 25: Airfoil shape - DU97-W-300

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

1 1.0000 0.0087 51 0.3035 0.1343 101 0.0032 -0.0161 151 0.4107 -0.14642 0.9935 0.0105 52 0.2912 0.1340 102 0.0045 -0.0193 152 0.4232 -0.14283 0.9848 0.0129 53 0.2792 0.1336 103 0.0060 -0.0226 153 0.4358 -0.13914 0.9739 0.0158 54 0.2674 0.1329 104 0.0079 -0.0261 154 0.4487 -0.13515 0.9613 0.0191 55 0.2559 0.1320 105 0.0102 -0.0298 155 0.4618 -0.13096 0.9477 0.0226 56 0.2447 0.1310 106 0.0129 -0.0339 156 0.4751 -0.12667 0.9332 0.0262 57 0.2337 0.1296 107 0.0162 -0.0383 157 0.4887 -0.12208 0.9184 0.0298 58 0.2228 0.1281 108 0.0199 -0.0431 158 0.5025 -0.11729 0.9033 0.0335 59 0.2119 0.1263 109 0.0243 -0.0482 159 0.5165 -0.112310 0.8882 0.0372 60 0.2010 0.1242 110 0.0292 -0.0536 160 0.5306 -0.107311 0.8730 0.0409 61 0.1902 0.1219 111 0.0348 -0.0593 161 0.5449 -0.102212 0.8579 0.0446 62 0.1793 0.1194 112 0.0409 -0.0652 162 0.5592 -0.097013 0.8427 0.0482 63 0.1686 0.1166 113 0.0475 -0.0712 163 0.5737 -0.091714 0.8277 0.0519 64 0.1580 0.1137 114 0.0545 -0.0772 164 0.5883 -0.086415 0.8126 0.0554 65 0.1475 0.1105 115 0.0620 -0.0832 165 0.6030 -0.081016 0.7976 0.0590 66 0.1372 0.1071 116 0.0698 -0.0891 166 0.6176 -0.075717 0.7826 0.0625 67 0.1271 0.1035 117 0.0780 -0.0949 167 0.6321 -0.070418 0.7677 0.0660 68 0.1172 0.0997 118 0.0864 -0.1007 168 0.6464 -0.065219 0.7528 0.0694 69 0.1076 0.0957 119 0.0952 -0.1063 169 0.6606 -0.060220 0.7379 0.0728 70 0.0983 0.0916 120 0.1041 -0.1117 170 0.6747 -0.055221 0.7230 0.0761 71 0.0892 0.0873 121 0.1132 -0.1169 171 0.6885 -0.050322 0.7082 0.0794 72 0.0805 0.0829 122 0.1224 -0.1219 172 0.7022 -0.045723 0.6934 0.0826 73 0.0722 0.0784 123 0.1318 -0.1267 173 0.7158 -0.041124 0.6786 0.0858 74 0.0643 0.0738 124 0.1413 -0.1312 174 0.7291 -0.036825 0.6639 0.0889 75 0.0568 0.0691 125 0.1508 -0.1355 175 0.7423 -0.032626 0.6492 0.0920 76 0.0497 0.0644 126 0.1605 -0.1396 176 0.7552 -0.028727 0.6346 0.0949 77 0.0432 0.0597 127 0.1703 -0.1434 177 0.7679 -0.024928 0.6200 0.0978 78 0.0371 0.0550 128 0.1800 -0.1469 178 0.7803 -0.021529 0.6054 0.1007 79 0.0316 0.0504 129 0.1897 -0.1502 179 0.7926 -0.018230 0.5909 0.1034 80 0.0267 0.0460 130 0.1993 -0.1531 180 0.8046 -0.015231 0.5765 0.1061 81 0.0223 0.0418 131 0.2089 -0.1558 181 0.8165 -0.012532 0.5621 0.1087 82 0.0185 0.0377 132 0.2183 -0.1581 182 0.8282 -0.010033 0.5477 0.1111 83 0.0151 0.0339 133 0.2277 -0.1601 183 0.8398 -0.007834 0.5334 0.1135 84 0.0122 0.0302 134 0.2369 -0.1618 184 0.8511 -0.005835 0.5191 0.1158 85 0.0097 0.0268 135 0.2460 -0.1632 185 0.8623 -0.004136 0.5049 0.1180 86 0.0075 0.0236 136 0.2552 -0.1643 186 0.8733 -0.002737 0.4908 0.1200 87 0.0057 0.0206 137 0.2644 -0.1652 187 0.8842 -0.001538 0.4767 0.1220 88 0.0042 0.0178 138 0.2736 -0.1657 188 0.8950 -0.000639 0.4627 0.1238 89 0.0030 0.0150 139 0.2829 -0.1660 189 0.9056 0.000040 0.4488 0.1255 90 0.0020 0.0124 140 0.2924 -0.1659 190 0.9161 0.000441 0.4350 0.1271 91 0.0012 0.0098 141 0.3019 -0.1656 191 0.9263 0.000542 0.4213 0.1286 92 0.0006 0.0073 142 0.3117 -0.1650 192 0.9363 0.000443 0.4077 0.1298 93 0.0003 0.0048 143 0.3217 -0.1641 193 0.9458 0.000044 0.3942 0.1310 94 0.0001 0.0023 144 0.3319 -0.1629 194 0.9549 -0.000645 0.3808 0.1320 95 0.0000 -0.0001 145 0.3424 -0.1614 195 0.9636 -0.001546 0.3676 0.1328 96 0.0001 -0.0025 146 0.3531 -0.1597 196 0.9720 -0.002747 0.3545 0.1335 97 0.0003 -0.0050 147 0.3640 -0.1576 197 0.9799 -0.004048 0.3415 0.1339 98 0.0007 -0.0076 148 0.3753 -0.1552 198 0.9872 -0.005549 0.3286 0.1342 99 0.0013 -0.0103 149 0.3868 -0.1526 199 0.9940 -0.007150 0.3160 0.1344 100 0.0021 -0.0132 150 0.3986 -0.1496 200 1.0000 -0.0087

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IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (71)

Table 26: Airfoil shape - DU91-W2-250

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

1 1.0000 0.0033 53 0.2100 0.1144 105 0.0002 -0.0039 157 0.2500 -0.12072 0.9900 0.0061 54 0.2000 0.1122 106 0.0003 -0.0047 158 0.2600 -0.12143 0.9800 0.0089 55 0.1900 0.1099 107 0.0004 -0.0055 159 0.2700 -0.12194 0.9700 0.0116 56 0.1800 0.1075 108 0.0005 -0.0062 160 0.2800 -0.12235 0.9600 0.0142 57 0.1700 0.1049 109 0.0008 -0.0076 161 0.2900 -0.12256 0.9500 0.0168 58 0.1600 0.1021 110 0.0010 -0.0088 162 0.3000 -0.12267 0.9400 0.0194 59 0.1500 0.0991 111 0.0013 -0.0098 163 0.3100 -0.12258 0.9300 0.0219 60 0.1400 0.0959 112 0.0015 -0.0108 164 0.3200 -0.12239 0.9200 0.0245 61 0.1300 0.0926 113 0.0017 -0.0117 165 0.3300 -0.121910 0.9100 0.0270 62 0.1200 0.0890 114 0.0020 -0.0125 166 0.3400 -0.121411 0.9000 0.0295 63 0.1100 0.0852 115 0.0030 -0.0153 167 0.3500 -0.120712 0.8750 0.0358 64 0.1000 0.0812 116 0.0040 -0.0177 168 0.3600 -0.119913 0.8500 0.0420 65 0.0950 0.0791 117 0.0050 -0.0197 169 0.3700 -0.118914 0.8250 0.0482 66 0.0900 0.0769 118 0.0060 -0.0216 170 0.3800 -0.117915 0.8000 0.0543 67 0.0850 0.0746 119 0.0070 -0.0233 171 0.3900 -0.116616 0.7750 0.0603 68 0.0800 0.0723 120 0.0080 -0.0249 172 0.4000 -0.115317 0.7500 0.0662 69 0.0750 0.0699 121 0.0090 -0.0263 173 0.4100 -0.113818 0.7250 0.0720 70 0.0700 0.0673 122 0.0100 -0.0278 174 0.4200 -0.112219 0.7000 0.0777 71 0.0650 0.0647 123 0.0125 -0.0310 175 0.4300 -0.110520 0.6750 0.0833 72 0.0600 0.0620 124 0.0150 -0.0340 176 0.4400 -0.108621 0.6500 0.0887 73 0.0550 0.0592 125 0.0175 -0.0368 177 0.4500 -0.106622 0.6250 0.0940 74 0.0500 0.0562 126 0.0200 -0.0394 178 0.4750 -0.101023 0.6000 0.0990 75 0.0450 0.0531 127 0.0250 -0.0443 179 0.5000 -0.094724 0.5750 0.1037 76 0.0400 0.0498 128 0.0300 -0.0486 180 0.5250 -0.087725 0.5500 0.1082 77 0.0350 0.0463 129 0.0350 -0.0526 181 0.5500 -0.080126 0.5250 0.1124 78 0.0300 0.0426 130 0.0400 -0.0563 182 0.5750 -0.072127 0.5000 0.1162 79 0.0250 0.0387 131 0.0450 -0.0597 183 0.6000 -0.063628 0.4750 0.1197 80 0.0200 0.0344 132 0.0500 -0.0629 184 0.6250 -0.054929 0.4500 0.1227 81 0.0175 0.0320 133 0.0550 -0.0659 185 0.6500 -0.046030 0.4400 0.1237 82 0.0150 0.0296 134 0.0600 -0.0688 186 0.6750 -0.037231 0.4300 0.1247 83 0.0125 0.0270 135 0.0650 -0.0715 187 0.7000 -0.028732 0.4200 0.1256 84 0.0100 0.0241 136 0.0700 -0.0740 188 0.7250 -0.020633 0.4100 0.1264 85 0.0090 0.0229 137 0.0750 -0.0765 189 0.7500 -0.013134 0.4000 0.1271 86 0.0080 0.0216 138 0.0800 -0.0789 190 0.7750 -0.006535 0.3900 0.1277 87 0.0070 0.0203 139 0.0850 -0.0811 191 0.8000 -0.000936 0.3800 0.1282 88 0.0060 0.0189 140 0.0900 -0.0833 192 0.8250 0.003537 0.3700 0.1285 89 0.0050 0.0174 141 0.0950 -0.0854 193 0.8500 0.006638 0.3600 0.1288 90 0.0040 0.0157 142 0.1000 -0.0874 194 0.8750 0.008439 0.3500 0.1289 91 0.0030 0.0139 143 0.1100 -0.0913 195 0.9000 0.008840 0.3400 0.1288 92 0.0020 0.0116 144 0.1200 -0.0948 196 0.9100 0.008541 0.3300 0.1286 93 0.0017 0.0110 145 0.1300 -0.0981 197 0.9200 0.008042 0.3200 0.1282 94 0.0015 0.0102 146 0.1400 -0.1011 198 0.9300 0.007343 0.3100 0.1277 95 0.0013 0.0094 147 0.1500 -0.1039 199 0.9400 0.006344 0.3000 0.1270 96 0.0010 0.0085 148 0.1600 -0.1064 200 0.9500 0.005145 0.2900 0.1262 97 0.0008 0.0074 149 0.1700 -0.1088 201 0.9600 0.003646 0.2800 0.1252 98 0.0005 0.0060 150 0.1800 -0.1109 202 0.9700 0.002147 0.2700 0.1241 99 0.0004 0.0054 151 0.1900 -0.1129 203 0.9800 0.000048 0.2600 0.1228 100 0.0003 0.0046 152 0.2000 -0.1146 204 0.9900 -0.001049 0.2500 0.1214 101 0.0002 0.0038 153 0.2100 -0.1162 205 1.0000 0.000050 0.2400 0.1199 102 0.0001 0.0027 154 0.2200 -0.117651 0.2300 0.1182 103 0.0000 0.0000 155 0.2300 -0.118852 0.2200 0.1164 104 0.0001 -0.0027 156 0.2400 -0.1198

IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (72)

Table 27: Airfoil shape - DU08-W-210

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

1 1.0000 0.0014 53 0.2100 0.1100 105 0.0002 -0.0028 157 0.2500 -0.08822 0.9900 0.0040 54 0.2000 0.1080 106 0.0003 -0.0034 158 0.2600 -0.08853 0.9800 0.0066 55 0.1900 0.1058 107 0.0004 -0.0039 159 0.2700 -0.08864 0.9700 0.0091 56 0.1800 0.1035 108 0.0005 -0.0044 160 0.2800 -0.08865 0.9600 0.0116 57 0.1700 0.1010 109 0.0008 -0.0054 161 0.2900 -0.08856 0.9500 0.0140 58 0.1600 0.0983 110 0.0010 -0.0062 162 0.3000 -0.08837 0.9400 0.0164 59 0.1500 0.0954 111 0.0013 -0.0070 163 0.3100 -0.08798 0.9300 0.0189 60 0.1400 0.0924 112 0.0015 -0.0076 164 0.3200 -0.08749 0.9200 0.0213 61 0.1300 0.0892 113 0.0018 -0.0083 165 0.3300 -0.086810 0.9100 0.0237 62 0.1200 0.0857 114 0.0020 -0.0088 166 0.3400 -0.086111 0.9000 0.0261 63 0.1100 0.0820 115 0.0030 -0.0109 167 0.3500 -0.085312 0.8750 0.0321 64 0.1000 0.0781 116 0.0040 -0.0126 168 0.3600 -0.084313 0.8500 0.0380 65 0.0950 0.0761 117 0.0050 -0.0141 169 0.3700 -0.083314 0.8250 0.0439 66 0.0900 0.0739 118 0.0060 -0.0155 170 0.3800 -0.082215 0.8000 0.0497 67 0.0850 0.0717 119 0.0070 -0.0168 171 0.3900 -0.080916 0.7750 0.0554 68 0.0800 0.0694 120 0.0080 -0.0180 172 0.4000 -0.079617 0.7500 0.0609 69 0.0750 0.0670 121 0.0090 -0.0191 173 0.4100 -0.078218 0.7250 0.0664 70 0.0700 0.0646 122 0.0100 -0.0202 174 0.4200 -0.076719 0.7000 0.0718 71 0.0650 0.0620 123 0.0125 -0.0227 175 0.4300 -0.075120 0.6750 0.0771 72 0.0600 0.0593 124 0.0150 -0.0250 176 0.4400 -0.073421 0.6500 0.0823 73 0.0550 0.0565 125 0.0175 -0.0271 177 0.4500 -0.071622 0.6250 0.0873 74 0.0500 0.0536 126 0.0200 -0.0291 178 0.4750 -0.066823 0.6000 0.0921 75 0.0450 0.0505 127 0.0250 -0.0328 179 0.5000 -0.061524 0.5750 0.0967 76 0.0400 0.0472 128 0.0300 -0.0361 180 0.5250 -0.055825 0.5500 0.1012 77 0.0350 0.0438 129 0.0350 -0.0392 181 0.5500 -0.049726 0.5250 0.1053 78 0.0300 0.0401 130 0.0400 -0.0420 182 0.5750 -0.043427 0.5000 0.1091 79 0.0250 0.0361 131 0.0450 -0.0446 183 0.6000 -0.036928 0.4750 0.1126 80 0.0200 0.0318 132 0.0500 -0.0471 184 0.6250 -0.030429 0.4500 0.1157 81 0.0175 0.0295 133 0.0550 -0.0494 185 0.6500 -0.023930 0.4400 0.1168 82 0.0150 0.0271 134 0.0600 -0.0516 186 0.6750 -0.017531 0.4300 0.1178 83 0.0125 0.0245 135 0.0650 -0.0536 187 0.7000 -0.011532 0.4200 0.1187 84 0.0100 0.0216 136 0.0700 -0.0556 188 0.7250 -0.006033 0.4100 0.1196 85 0.0090 0.0204 137 0.0750 -0.0574 189 0.7500 -0.001034 0.4000 0.1204 86 0.0080 0.0191 138 0.0800 -0.0592 190 0.7750 0.003135 0.3900 0.1210 87 0.0070 0.0178 139 0.0850 -0.0609 191 0.8000 0.006436 0.3800 0.1216 88 0.0060 0.0164 140 0.0900 -0.0625 192 0.8250 0.008637 0.3700 0.1221 89 0.0050 0.0149 141 0.0950 -0.0641 193 0.8500 0.009738 0.3600 0.1225 90 0.0040 0.0133 142 0.1000 -0.0656 194 0.8750 0.009939 0.3500 0.1227 91 0.0030 0.0114 143 0.1100 -0.0684 195 0.9000 0.009040 0.3400 0.1228 92 0.0020 0.0093 144 0.1200 -0.0709 196 0.9100 0.008441 0.3300 0.1227 93 0.0018 0.0087 145 0.1300 -0.0733 197 0.9200 0.007742 0.3200 0.1225 94 0.0015 0.0081 146 0.1400 -0.0754 198 0.9300 0.006843 0.3100 0.1221 95 0.0013 0.0074 147 0.1500 -0.0774 199 0.9400 0.005844 0.3000 0.1215 96 0.0010 0.0066 148 0.1600 -0.0792 200 0.9500 0.004745 0.2900 0.1209 97 0.0008 0.0056 149 0.1700 -0.0808 201 0.9600 0.003546 0.2800 0.1200 98 0.0005 0.0046 150 0.1800 -0.0823 202 0.9700 0.002247 0.2700 0.1190 99 0.0004 0.0041 151 0.1900 -0.0836 203 0.9800 0.000948 0.2600 0.1179 100 0.0003 0.0035 152 0.2000 -0.0847 204 0.9900 -0.000349 0.2500 0.1166 101 0.0002 0.0028 153 0.2100 -0.0857 205 1.0000 -0.001450 0.2400 0.1152 102 0.0001 0.0020 154 0.2200 -0.086551 0.2300 0.1136 103 0.0000 0.0000 155 0.2300 -0.087252 0.2200 0.1119 104 0.0001 -0.0020 156 0.2400 -0.0878

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Table 28: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - Root circle

α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180 0.000 0.600 0.0000 0.000 0.600 0.000

180 0.000 0.600 0.000

71

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Table 29: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FX77-W-500

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.0 0.000 0.155 0.000 -11.5 -0.427 0.189 -0.011 13.0 1.010 0.183 -0.042-175.0 0.220 0.173 0.200 -11.0 -0.414 0.183 -0.016 13.5 1.008 0.195 -0.044-170.0 0.440 0.191 0.400 -10.5 -0.401 0.176 -0.021 14.0 1.007 0.206 -0.046-165.0 0.547 0.244 0.358 -10.0 -0.388 0.170 -0.026 15.0 1.008 0.227 -0.049-160.0 0.653 0.296 0.317 -9.5 -0.361 0.164 -0.025 16.0 1.012 0.246 -0.053-155.0 0.627 0.376 0.300 -9.0 -0.335 0.157 -0.024 17.0 0.994 0.259 -0.063-150.0 0.602 0.456 0.284 -8.5 -0.309 0.151 -0.023 18.0 0.974 0.271 -0.073-145.0 0.587 0.554 0.289 -8.0 -0.282 0.144 -0.022 19.0 0.953 0.284 -0.084-140.0 0.573 0.651 0.294 -7.5 -0.256 0.138 -0.022 20.0 0.933 0.296 -0.094-135.0 0.547 0.754 0.305 -7.0 -0.230 0.132 -0.021 22.0 0.918 0.328 -0.106-130.0 0.521 0.856 0.315 -6.5 -0.204 0.125 -0.020 24.0 0.904 0.360 -0.119-125.0 0.476 0.951 0.326 -6.0 -0.177 0.119 -0.019 26.0 0.889 0.392 -0.131-120.0 0.432 1.045 0.337 -5.5 -0.151 0.112 -0.019 28.0 0.874 0.424 -0.143-115.0 0.370 1.118 0.343 -5.0 -0.125 0.106 -0.018 30.0 0.860 0.456 -0.155-110.0 0.308 1.192 0.350 -4.5 -0.098 0.100 -0.017 32.0 0.852 0.495 -0.164-105.0 0.233 1.235 0.351 -4.0 -0.072 0.093 -0.016 34.0 0.843 0.534 -0.173-100.0 0.159 1.278 0.352 -3.5 -0.046 0.087 -0.016 36.0 0.835 0.573 -0.182-95.0 0.079 1.284 0.345 -3.0 -0.007 0.083 -0.016 38.0 0.827 0.612 -0.191-90.0 0.000 1.290 0.339 -2.5 0.050 0.084 -0.018 40.0 0.819 0.651 -0.201-85.0 -0.079 1.284 0.331 -2.0 0.107 0.084 -0.020 45.0 0.781 0.754 -0.221-80.0 -0.159 1.278 0.324 -1.5 0.164 0.085 -0.022 50.0 0.744 0.856 -0.241-75.0 -0.233 1.235 0.309 -1.0 0.221 0.085 -0.024 55.0 0.680 0.951 -0.258-70.0 -0.308 1.192 0.295 -0.5 0.279 0.086 -0.026 60.0 0.617 1.045 -0.276-65.0 -0.370 1.118 0.276 0.0 0.336 0.086 -0.028 65.0 0.528 1.118 -0.291-60.0 -0.432 1.045 0.256 0.5 0.393 0.087 -0.030 70.0 0.440 1.192 -0.305-55.0 -0.476 0.951 0.234 1.0 0.450 0.087 -0.032 75.0 0.333 1.235 -0.316-50.0 -0.521 0.856 0.212 1.5 0.507 0.088 -0.034 80.0 0.227 1.278 -0.327-45.0 -0.547 0.754 0.190 2.0 0.570 0.088 -0.037 85.0 0.113 1.284 -0.333-40.0 -0.573 0.651 0.167 2.5 0.637 0.088 -0.039 90.0 0.000 1.290 -0.339-38.0 -0.579 0.612 0.158 3.0 0.703 0.087 -0.041 95.0 -0.079 1.284 -0.345-36.0 -0.585 0.573 0.150 3.5 0.770 0.087 -0.044 100.0 -0.159 1.278 -0.352-34.0 -0.590 0.534 0.141 4.0 0.837 0.087 -0.046 105.0 -0.233 1.235 -0.351-32.0 -0.596 0.495 0.132 4.5 0.903 0.087 -0.048 110.0 -0.308 1.192 -0.350-30.0 -0.602 0.456 0.123 5.0 0.970 0.087 -0.051 115.0 -0.370 1.118 -0.343-28.0 -0.612 0.424 0.113 5.5 1.037 0.087 -0.053 120.0 -0.432 1.045 -0.337-26.0 -0.622 0.392 0.103 6.0 1.098 0.086 -0.056 125.0 -0.476 0.951 -0.326-24.0 -0.633 0.360 0.093 6.5 1.157 0.086 -0.058 130.0 -0.521 0.856 -0.315-22.0 -0.643 0.328 0.083 7.0 1.217 0.086 -0.061 135.0 -0.547 0.754 -0.305-20.0 -0.653 0.296 0.073 7.5 1.277 0.086 -0.064 140.0 -0.573 0.651 -0.294-19.0 -0.627 0.284 0.063 8.0 1.336 0.086 -0.067 145.0 -0.587 0.554 -0.289-18.0 -0.600 0.271 0.054 8.5 1.396 0.086 -0.069 150.0 -0.602 0.456 -0.284-17.0 -0.573 0.258 0.044 9.0 1.444 0.086 -0.073 155.0 -0.627 0.376 -0.300-16.0 -0.547 0.246 0.034 9.5 1.485 0.088 -0.076 160.0 -0.653 0.296 -0.317-15.0 -0.520 0.233 0.024 10.0 1.526 0.089 -0.080 165.0 -0.547 0.244 -0.408-14.0 -0.494 0.220 0.014 10.5 1.240 0.105 -0.083 170.0 -0.440 0.191 -0.500-13.5 -0.481 0.214 0.009 11.0 1.073 0.126 -0.044 175.0 -0.220 0.173 -0.250-13.0 -0.467 0.208 0.004 11.5 1.045 0.141 -0.037 180.0 0.000 0.155 0.000-12.5 -0.454 0.201 -0.001 12.0 1.028 0.155 -0.039-12.0 -0.441 0.195 -0.006 12.5 1.017 0.169 -0.041

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Table 30: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FX77-W-400

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.0 0.000 0.010 0.000 -11.5 -0.507 0.043 -0.001 13.0 0.973 0.035 -0.060-175.0 0.246 0.010 0.200 -11.0 -0.495 0.040 -0.006 13.5 0.985 0.037 -0.062-170.0 0.493 0.010 0.400 -10.5 -0.483 0.037 -0.011 14.0 0.998 0.038 -0.064-165.0 0.603 0.052 0.353 -10.0 -0.471 0.034 -0.016 15.0 1.054 0.039 -0.069-160.0 0.713 0.094 0.306 -9.5 -0.444 0.034 -0.016 16.0 1.127 0.040 -0.074-155.0 0.675 0.182 0.282 -9.0 -0.417 0.033 -0.016 17.0 1.100 0.054 -0.083-150.0 0.637 0.270 0.259 -8.5 -0.391 0.033 -0.016 18.0 1.073 0.067 -0.093-145.0 0.616 0.379 0.261 -8.0 -0.364 0.033 -0.016 19.0 1.046 0.081 -0.102-140.0 0.594 0.487 0.264 -7.5 -0.338 0.032 -0.016 20.0 1.019 0.094 -0.111-135.0 0.564 0.603 0.275 -7.0 -0.311 0.032 -0.016 22.0 0.997 0.129 -0.120-130.0 0.533 0.718 0.285 -6.5 -0.285 0.031 -0.016 24.0 0.975 0.165 -0.130-125.0 0.486 0.828 0.298 -6.0 -0.258 0.031 -0.016 26.0 0.954 0.200 -0.139-120.0 0.438 0.937 0.311 -5.5 -0.232 0.030 -0.016 28.0 0.932 0.235 -0.149-115.0 0.374 1.028 0.322 -5.0 -0.205 0.030 -0.016 30.0 0.910 0.270 -0.158-110.0 0.311 1.119 0.333 -4.5 -0.179 0.029 -0.016 32.0 0.898 0.314 -0.166-105.0 0.235 1.180 0.339 -4.0 -0.152 0.029 -0.016 34.0 0.885 0.357 -0.173-100.0 0.159 1.241 0.344 -3.5 -0.126 0.028 -0.016 36.0 0.873 0.400 -0.180-95.0 0.080 1.265 0.343 -3.0 -0.099 0.028 -0.016 38.0 0.861 0.443 -0.187-90.0 0.000 1.290 0.342 -2.5 -0.031 0.028 -0.019 40.0 0.849 0.487 -0.194-85.0 -0.080 1.265 0.330 -2.0 0.037 0.028 -0.020 45.0 0.805 0.603 -0.212-80.0 -0.159 1.241 0.319 -1.5 0.105 0.028 -0.022 50.0 0.762 0.718 -0.229-75.0 -0.235 1.180 0.302 -1.0 0.173 0.028 -0.024 55.0 0.694 0.828 -0.246-70.0 -0.311 1.119 0.285 -0.5 0.241 0.028 -0.025 60.0 0.626 0.937 -0.263-65.0 -0.374 1.028 0.264 0.0 0.309 0.028 -0.027 65.0 0.535 1.028 -0.279-60.0 -0.438 0.937 0.243 0.5 0.377 0.028 -0.029 70.0 0.444 1.119 -0.295-55.0 -0.486 0.828 0.221 1.0 0.445 0.028 -0.031 75.0 0.336 1.180 -0.308-50.0 -0.533 0.718 0.200 1.5 0.513 0.028 -0.032 80.0 0.228 1.241 -0.322-45.0 -0.564 0.603 0.179 2.0 0.580 0.028 -0.034 85.0 0.114 1.265 -0.332-40.0 -0.594 0.487 0.159 2.5 0.646 0.028 -0.036 90.0 0.000 1.290 -0.342-38.0 -0.603 0.443 0.152 3.0 0.713 0.028 -0.039 95.0 -0.080 1.265 -0.343-36.0 -0.611 0.400 0.144 3.5 0.779 0.028 -0.041 100.0 -0.159 1.241 -0.344-34.0 -0.620 0.357 0.137 4.0 0.845 0.028 -0.043 105.0 -0.235 1.180 -0.339-32.0 -0.628 0.314 0.130 4.5 0.912 0.028 -0.045 110.0 -0.311 1.119 -0.333-30.0 -0.637 0.270 0.123 5.0 0.978 0.028 -0.047 115.0 -0.374 1.028 -0.322-28.0 -0.652 0.235 0.115 5.5 1.045 0.028 -0.049 120.0 -0.438 0.937 -0.311-26.0 -0.667 0.200 0.107 6.0 1.111 0.028 -0.052 125.0 -0.486 0.828 -0.298-24.0 -0.683 0.165 0.100 6.5 1.177 0.028 -0.054 130.0 -0.533 0.718 -0.285-22.0 -0.698 0.129 0.092 7.0 1.244 0.028 -0.056 135.0 -0.564 0.603 -0.275-20.0 -0.713 0.094 0.084 7.5 1.310 0.028 -0.058 140.0 -0.594 0.487 -0.264-19.0 -0.689 0.088 0.074 8.0 1.374 0.028 -0.061 145.0 -0.616 0.379 -0.261-18.0 -0.665 0.082 0.064 8.5 1.434 0.028 -0.064 150.0 -0.637 0.270 -0.259-17.0 -0.640 0.076 0.054 9.0 1.494 0.029 -0.068 155.0 -0.675 0.182 -0.282-16.0 -0.616 0.070 0.044 9.5 1.554 0.029 -0.071 160.0 -0.713 0.094 -0.306-15.0 -0.592 0.064 0.034 10.0 1.614 0.029 -0.074 165.0 -0.603 0.052 -0.403-14.0 -0.568 0.058 0.024 10.5 1.663 0.029 -0.078 170.0 -0.493 0.010 -0.500-13.5 -0.555 0.055 0.019 11.0 1.695 0.029 -0.081 175.0 -0.246 0.010 -0.250-13.0 -0.543 0.052 0.014 11.5 1.728 0.029 -0.084 180.0 0.000 0.010 0.000-12.5 -0.531 0.049 0.009 12.0 1.760 0.030 -0.088-12.0 -0.519 0.046 0.004 12.5 0.986 0.033 -0.059

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Table 31: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - DU00-W2-350

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 -11.5 -0.679 0.087 0.086 13.0 1.291 0.059 -0.109-175.0 0.217 0.054 0.200 -11.0 -0.671 0.080 0.075 13.5 1.270 0.069 -0.109-170.0 0.433 0.107 0.400 -10.5 -0.664 0.072 0.063 14.0 1.249 0.080 -0.109-165.0 0.620 0.163 0.212 -10.0 -0.656 0.064 0.051 15.0 1.211 0.103 -0.110-160.0 0.806 0.219 0.024 -9.5 -0.649 0.056 0.039 16.0 1.188 0.130 -0.119-155.0 0.763 0.314 0.048 -9.0 -0.641 0.049 0.027 17.0 1.172 0.154 -0.132-150.0 0.719 0.409 0.072 -8.5 -0.634 0.041 0.015 18.0 1.165 0.179 -0.143-145.0 0.695 0.525 0.094 -8.0 -0.626 0.033 0.003 19.0 1.176 0.203 -0.148-140.0 0.670 0.640 0.116 -7.5 -0.584 0.029 -0.001 20.0 1.152 0.219 -0.157-135.0 0.636 0.763 0.140 -7.0 -0.541 0.026 -0.005 22.0 1.114 0.252 -0.172-130.0 0.601 0.886 0.163 -6.5 -0.494 0.023 -0.010 24.0 1.084 0.288 -0.184-125.0 0.548 1.001 0.187 -6.0 -0.447 0.020 -0.014 26.0 1.062 0.326 -0.196-120.0 0.494 1.116 0.211 -5.5 -0.396 0.018 -0.019 28.0 1.043 0.366 -0.206-115.0 0.422 1.208 0.234 -5.0 -0.344 0.016 -0.023 30.0 1.027 0.409 -0.215-110.0 0.350 1.301 0.256 -4.5 -0.289 0.014 -0.028 32.0 1.013 0.452 -0.224-105.0 0.265 1.360 0.273 -4.0 -0.233 0.013 -0.033 34.0 1.000 0.498 -0.233-100.0 0.180 1.418 0.291 -3.5 -0.174 0.012 -0.038 36.0 0.986 0.544 -0.242-95.0 0.090 1.436 0.301 -3.0 -0.115 0.012 -0.043 38.0 0.973 0.592 -0.250-90.0 0.000 1.453 0.312 -2.5 -0.054 0.011 -0.048 40.0 0.958 0.640 -0.259-85.0 -0.090 1.436 0.316 -2.0 0.007 0.011 -0.052 45.0 0.914 0.764 -0.279-80.0 -0.180 1.418 0.320 -1.5 0.070 0.011 -0.056 50.0 0.859 0.886 -0.299-75.0 -0.265 1.360 0.316 -1.0 0.133 0.010 -0.060 55.0 0.782 1.001 -0.318-70.0 -0.350 1.301 0.312 -0.5 0.197 0.010 -0.064 60.0 0.706 1.116 -0.337-65.0 -0.422 1.208 0.302 0.0 0.261 0.010 -0.068 65.0 0.603 1.208 -0.354-60.0 -0.494 1.116 0.292 0.5 0.326 0.010 -0.072 70.0 0.500 1.301 -0.371-55.0 -0.548 1.001 0.279 1.0 0.391 0.010 -0.075 75.0 0.378 1.360 -0.384-50.0 -0.601 0.886 0.267 1.5 0.457 0.010 -0.079 80.0 0.257 1.418 -0.397-45.0 -0.640 0.764 0.254 2.0 0.522 0.010 -0.082 85.0 0.128 1.436 -0.406-40.0 -0.670 0.640 0.244 2.5 0.587 0.011 -0.085 90.0 0.000 1.453 -0.415-38.0 -0.681 0.592 0.240 3.0 0.652 0.011 -0.087 95.0 -0.090 1.436 -0.419-36.0 -0.691 0.544 0.238 3.5 0.716 0.011 -0.089 100.0 -0.180 1.418 -0.423-34.0 -0.700 0.498 0.237 4.0 0.779 0.011 -0.091 105.0 -0.265 1.360 -0.419-32.0 -0.709 0.452 0.237 4.5 0.841 0.012 -0.093 110.0 -0.350 1.301 -0.415-30.0 -0.719 0.409 0.238 5.0 0.902 0.012 -0.095 115.0 -0.422 1.208 -0.405-28.0 -0.730 0.366 0.242 5.5 0.961 0.012 -0.097 120.0 -0.494 1.116 -0.395-26.0 -0.743 0.326 0.247 6.0 1.020 0.013 -0.098 125.0 -0.548 1.001 -0.383-24.0 -0.759 0.288 0.257 6.5 1.075 0.013 -0.099 130.0 -0.601 0.886 -0.370-22.0 -0.780 0.252 0.270 7.0 1.129 0.014 -0.100 135.0 -0.636 0.763 -0.358-20.0 -0.806 0.219 0.289 7.5 1.178 0.015 -0.101 140.0 -0.670 0.640 -0.347-19.0 -0.791 0.204 0.265 8.0 1.227 0.015 -0.102 145.0 -0.695 0.525 -0.344-18.0 -0.776 0.188 0.241 8.5 1.268 0.016 -0.103 150.0 -0.719 0.409 -0.341-17.0 -0.761 0.173 0.218 9.0 1.308 0.017 -0.104 155.0 -0.763 0.314 -0.367-16.0 -0.746 0.157 0.194 9.5 1.339 0.020 -0.105 160.0 -0.806 0.219 -0.392-15.0 -0.731 0.142 0.170 10.0 1.369 0.022 -0.106 165.0 -0.605 0.164 -0.446-14.0 -0.716 0.126 0.146 10.5 1.381 0.026 -0.107 170.0 -0.403 0.110 -0.500-13.5 -0.709 0.118 0.134 11.0 1.393 0.029 -0.107 175.0 -0.202 0.055 -0.250-13.0 -0.701 0.111 0.122 11.5 1.368 0.035 -0.108 180.0 0.000 0.000 0.000-12.5 -0.694 0.103 0.110 12.0 1.342 0.041 -0.108-12.0 -0.686 0.095 0.098 12.5 1.317 0.050 -0.109

IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (77)

Table 32: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - DU97-W-300

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 -11.5 -0.975 0.090 -0.019 13.0 1.196 0.059 -0.116-175.0 0.183 0.047 0.200 -11.0 -0.931 0.083 -0.025 13.5 1.148 0.067 -0.114-170.0 0.366 0.093 0.400 -10.5 -0.884 0.076 -0.030 14.0 1.100 0.075 -0.113-165.0 0.549 0.140 0.194 -10.0 -0.838 0.070 -0.035 15.0 1.050 0.089 -0.111-160.0 0.732 0.187 -0.012 -9.5 -0.801 0.060 -0.041 16.0 1.022 0.103 -0.109-155.0 0.721 0.279 -0.008 -9.0 -0.765 0.050 -0.047 17.0 1.007 0.117 -0.110-150.0 0.710 0.371 -0.005 -8.5 -0.751 0.037 -0.052 18.0 1.010 0.133 -0.112-145.0 0.688 0.489 0.020 -8.0 -0.737 0.024 -0.057 19.0 1.040 0.153 -0.118-140.0 0.665 0.607 0.045 -7.5 -0.693 0.021 -0.059 20.0 1.065 0.173 -0.125-135.0 0.632 0.733 0.071 -7.0 -0.649 0.017 -0.060 22.0 1.095 0.212 -0.144-130.0 0.598 0.858 0.097 -6.5 -0.578 0.016 -0.064 24.0 1.067 0.248 -0.164-125.0 0.545 0.976 0.124 -6.0 -0.507 0.015 -0.068 26.0 1.046 0.287 -0.180-120.0 0.492 1.094 0.150 -5.5 -0.438 0.014 -0.072 28.0 1.029 0.328 -0.194-115.0 0.421 1.190 0.175 -5.0 -0.369 0.013 -0.076 30.0 1.015 0.371 -0.207-110.0 0.349 1.286 0.201 -4.5 -0.301 0.012 -0.079 32.0 1.002 0.416 -0.220-105.0 0.264 1.348 0.222 -4.0 -0.233 0.012 -0.082 34.0 0.990 0.462 -0.231-100.0 0.179 1.411 0.243 -3.5 -0.167 0.011 -0.085 36.0 0.977 0.509 -0.242-95.0 0.090 1.432 0.257 -3.0 -0.101 0.011 -0.088 38.0 0.964 0.558 -0.252-90.0 0.000 1.453 0.271 -2.5 -0.036 0.011 -0.090 40.0 0.950 0.607 -0.263-85.0 -0.090 1.432 0.277 -2.0 0.028 0.011 -0.093 45.0 0.908 0.733 -0.287-80.0 -0.179 1.411 0.284 -1.5 0.092 0.010 -0.095 50.0 0.854 0.858 -0.311-75.0 -0.264 1.348 0.282 -1.0 0.156 0.010 -0.098 55.0 0.779 0.976 -0.333-70.0 -0.349 1.286 0.280 -0.5 0.221 0.010 -0.100 60.0 0.703 1.094 -0.355-65.0 -0.421 1.190 0.271 0.0 0.287 0.010 -0.103 65.0 0.601 1.190 -0.376-60.0 -0.492 1.094 0.263 0.5 0.351 0.011 -0.105 70.0 0.499 1.286 -0.396-55.0 -0.545 0.976 0.251 1.0 0.416 0.011 -0.107 75.0 0.378 1.348 -0.413-50.0 -0.598 0.858 0.240 1.5 0.480 0.011 -0.109 80.0 0.256 1.411 -0.430-45.0 -0.636 0.733 0.229 2.0 0.544 0.011 -0.110 85.0 0.128 1.432 -0.442-40.0 -0.665 0.607 0.221 2.5 0.606 0.011 -0.112 90.0 0.000 1.453 -0.455-38.0 -0.675 0.558 0.218 3.0 0.668 0.011 -0.114 95.0 -0.090 1.432 -0.461-36.0 -0.684 0.509 0.217 3.5 0.729 0.011 -0.115 100.0 -0.179 1.411 -0.468-34.0 -0.693 0.462 0.217 4.0 0.791 0.011 -0.116 105.0 -0.264 1.348 -0.465-32.0 -0.701 0.416 0.218 4.5 0.852 0.011 -0.118 110.0 -0.349 1.286 -0.463-30.0 -0.710 0.371 0.222 5.0 0.913 0.011 -0.119 115.0 -0.421 1.190 -0.455-28.0 -0.720 0.328 0.227 5.5 0.972 0.012 -0.120 120.0 -0.492 1.094 -0.447-26.0 -0.732 0.287 0.235 6.0 1.031 0.012 -0.120 125.0 -0.545 0.976 -0.435-24.0 -0.747 0.248 0.248 6.5 1.088 0.012 -0.121 130.0 -0.598 0.858 -0.424-22.0 -0.766 0.212 0.265 7.0 1.145 0.012 -0.121 135.0 -0.632 0.733 -0.414-20.0 -0.922 0.197 0.196 7.5 1.200 0.013 -0.122 140.0 -0.665 0.607 -0.405-19.0 -0.999 0.189 0.162 8.0 1.256 0.013 -0.122 145.0 -0.688 0.489 -0.405-18.0 -1.077 0.182 0.127 8.5 1.308 0.013 -0.121 150.0 -0.710 0.371 -0.405-17.0 -1.154 0.174 0.093 9.0 1.359 0.014 -0.121 155.0 -0.703 0.282 -0.432-16.0 -1.232 0.166 0.058 9.5 1.406 0.014 -0.120 160.0 -0.697 0.193 -0.458-15.0 -1.259 0.155 0.032 10.0 1.452 0.015 -0.119 165.0 -0.522 0.145 -0.479-14.0 -1.194 0.137 0.020 10.5 1.489 0.016 -0.117 170.0 -0.348 0.096 -0.500-13.5 -1.152 0.127 0.012 11.0 1.526 0.017 -0.114 175.0 -0.174 0.048 -0.250-13.0 -1.110 0.117 0.005 11.5 1.542 0.018 -0.111 180.0 0.000 0.000 0.000-12.5 -1.065 0.108 -0.004 12.0 1.559 0.020 -0.107-12.0 -1.020 0.098 -0.012 12.5 1.377 0.040 -0.111

IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (78)

Table 33: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - DU91-W2-250

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 -11.5 -0.926 0.055 -0.033 13.0 1.097 0.077 -0.106-175.0 0.181 0.056 0.200 -11.0 -0.903 0.045 -0.035 13.5 1.104 0.085 -0.107-170.0 0.363 0.112 0.400 -10.5 -0.871 0.038 -0.039 14.0 1.112 0.093 -0.108-165.0 0.544 0.169 0.198 -10.0 -0.839 0.032 -0.043 15.0 1.126 0.111 -0.112-160.0 0.726 0.225 -0.003 -9.5 -0.806 0.026 -0.047 16.0 1.129 0.125 -0.113-155.0 0.731 0.314 -0.019 -9.0 -0.773 0.021 -0.051 17.0 1.122 0.137 -0.112-150.0 0.737 0.403 -0.035 -8.5 -0.717 0.017 -0.059 18.0 1.127 0.155 -0.115-145.0 0.709 0.519 -0.008 -8.0 -0.662 0.013 -0.068 19.0 1.134 0.176 -0.121-140.0 0.681 0.635 0.019 -7.5 -0.595 0.012 -0.074 20.0 1.139 0.196 -0.126-135.0 0.644 0.759 0.045 -7.0 -0.528 0.010 -0.080 22.0 1.147 0.245 -0.142-130.0 0.607 0.882 0.072 -6.5 -0.457 0.010 -0.086 24.0 1.119 0.282 -0.165-125.0 0.552 0.997 0.099 -6.0 -0.387 0.009 -0.092 26.0 1.092 0.320 -0.184-120.0 0.497 1.113 0.126 -5.5 -0.317 0.009 -0.097 28.0 1.071 0.361 -0.201-115.0 0.424 1.206 0.152 -5.0 -0.247 0.008 -0.102 30.0 1.052 0.403 -0.216-110.0 0.351 1.299 0.178 -4.5 -0.179 0.008 -0.105 32.0 1.036 0.447 -0.229-105.0 0.266 1.358 0.199 -4.0 -0.110 0.008 -0.108 34.0 1.020 0.492 -0.242-100.0 0.180 1.417 0.221 -3.5 -0.044 0.008 -0.111 36.0 1.005 0.539 -0.254-95.0 0.090 1.435 0.236 -3.0 0.023 0.008 -0.114 38.0 0.989 0.587 -0.265-90.0 0.000 1.453 0.250 -2.5 0.089 0.008 -0.116 40.0 0.973 0.635 -0.276-85.0 -0.090 1.435 0.258 -2.0 0.155 0.008 -0.119 45.0 0.926 0.759 -0.302-80.0 -0.180 1.417 0.267 -1.5 0.219 0.008 -0.120 50.0 0.868 0.882 -0.327-75.0 -0.266 1.358 0.267 -1.0 0.283 0.008 -0.122 55.0 0.789 0.997 -0.350-70.0 -0.351 1.299 0.267 -0.5 0.346 0.008 -0.124 60.0 0.711 1.113 -0.373-65.0 -0.424 1.206 0.260 0.0 0.408 0.008 -0.126 65.0 0.606 1.206 -0.394-60.0 -0.497 1.113 0.254 0.5 0.470 0.008 -0.127 70.0 0.502 1.299 -0.415-55.0 -0.552 0.997 0.244 1.0 0.533 0.008 -0.129 75.0 0.380 1.358 -0.432-50.0 -0.607 0.882 0.235 1.5 0.595 0.008 -0.130 80.0 0.257 1.417 -0.450-45.0 -0.648 0.759 0.226 2.0 0.658 0.008 -0.131 85.0 0.129 1.435 -0.463-40.0 -0.681 0.635 0.220 2.5 0.721 0.008 -0.133 90.0 0.000 1.453 -0.476-38.0 -0.693 0.587 0.219 3.0 0.782 0.008 -0.134 95.0 -0.090 1.435 -0.484-36.0 -0.704 0.539 0.219 3.5 0.843 0.008 -0.135 100.0 -0.180 1.417 -0.493-34.0 -0.714 0.492 0.221 4.0 0.904 0.008 -0.136 105.0 -0.266 1.358 -0.493-32.0 -0.725 0.447 0.224 4.5 0.964 0.008 -0.136 110.0 -0.351 1.299 -0.492-30.0 -0.737 0.403 0.229 5.0 1.024 0.009 -0.137 115.0 -0.424 1.206 -0.486-28.0 -0.749 0.361 0.237 5.5 1.083 0.009 -0.137 120.0 -0.497 1.113 -0.480-26.0 -0.765 0.320 0.248 6.0 1.141 0.009 -0.138 125.0 -0.552 0.997 -0.470-24.0 -0.783 0.282 0.264 6.5 1.195 0.009 -0.137 130.0 -0.607 0.882 -0.461-22.0 -0.812 0.246 0.245 7.0 1.248 0.010 -0.137 135.0 -0.644 0.759 -0.454-20.0 -0.847 0.210 0.187 7.5 1.289 0.011 -0.134 140.0 -0.681 0.635 -0.446-19.0 -0.865 0.192 0.158 8.0 1.330 0.011 -0.132 145.0 -0.709 0.519 -0.451-18.0 -0.883 0.175 0.129 8.5 1.347 0.013 -0.127 150.0 -0.737 0.403 -0.455-17.0 -0.901 0.157 0.100 9.0 1.365 0.015 -0.123 155.0 -0.714 0.316 -0.478-16.0 -0.919 0.139 0.070 9.5 1.336 0.025 -0.123 160.0 -0.690 0.230 -0.500-15.0 -0.936 0.121 0.041 10.0 1.306 0.036 -0.123 165.0 -0.518 0.172 -0.500-14.0 -0.954 0.103 0.012 10.5 1.231 0.046 -0.122 170.0 -0.345 0.115 -0.500-13.5 -0.963 0.094 -0.002 11.0 1.156 0.055 -0.121 175.0 -0.173 0.057 -0.250-13.0 -0.972 0.085 -0.017 11.5 1.133 0.059 -0.117 180.0 0.000 0.000 0.000-12.5 -0.961 0.075 -0.024 12.0 1.109 0.063 -0.112-12.0 -0.949 0.064 -0.031 12.5 1.103 0.070 -0.109

IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (79)

Table 34: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - DU08-W-210

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 -11.5 -0.641 0.055 0.048 13.0 1.510 0.062 -0.127-175.0 0.250 0.038 0.200 -11.0 -0.626 0.049 0.028 13.5 1.460 0.076 -0.129-170.0 0.501 0.075 0.400 -10.5 -0.610 0.042 0.008 14.0 1.410 0.089 -0.130-165.0 0.655 0.124 0.150 -10.0 -0.594 0.036 -0.012 15.0 1.340 0.103 -0.132-160.0 0.809 0.172 -0.099 -9.5 -0.579 0.029 -0.031 16.0 1.300 0.116 -0.133-155.0 0.764 0.269 -0.066 -9.0 -0.563 0.022 -0.051 17.0 1.260 0.130 -0.135-150.0 0.720 0.365 -0.033 -8.5 -0.536 0.017 -0.069 18.0 1.200 0.143 -0.137-145.0 0.696 0.484 -0.008 -8.0 -0.508 0.012 -0.086 19.0 1.179 0.156 -0.138-140.0 0.671 0.602 0.018 -7.5 -0.437 0.010 -0.095 20.0 1.155 0.172 -0.148-135.0 0.636 0.728 0.043 -7.0 -0.366 0.009 -0.103 22.0 1.116 0.206 -0.172-130.0 0.601 0.854 0.069 -6.5 -0.304 0.008 -0.105 24.0 1.087 0.243 -0.192-125.0 0.548 0.973 0.095 -6.0 -0.242 0.007 -0.107 26.0 1.064 0.282 -0.208-120.0 0.494 1.091 0.122 -5.5 -0.180 0.007 -0.109 28.0 1.045 0.322 -0.223-115.0 0.422 1.188 0.147 -5.0 -0.119 0.007 -0.110 30.0 1.029 0.365 -0.236-110.0 0.350 1.284 0.172 -4.5 -0.058 0.007 -0.112 32.0 1.015 0.410 -0.248-105.0 0.265 1.347 0.193 -4.0 0.003 0.006 -0.113 34.0 1.001 0.456 -0.259-100.0 0.180 1.410 0.215 -3.5 0.064 0.006 -0.114 36.0 0.988 0.504 -0.270-95.0 0.090 1.431 0.229 -3.0 0.124 0.006 -0.116 38.0 0.974 0.553 -0.280-90.0 0.000 1.453 0.244 -2.5 0.185 0.006 -0.117 40.0 0.959 0.602 -0.291-85.0 -0.090 1.431 0.250 -2.0 0.245 0.006 -0.118 45.0 0.915 0.728 -0.315-80.0 -0.180 1.410 0.256 -1.5 0.305 0.006 -0.119 50.0 0.859 0.854 -0.338-75.0 -0.265 1.347 0.254 -1.0 0.365 0.006 -0.120 55.0 0.783 0.973 -0.361-70.0 -0.350 1.284 0.251 -0.5 0.425 0.006 -0.121 60.0 0.706 1.091 -0.383-65.0 -0.422 1.188 0.243 0.0 0.485 0.006 -0.122 65.0 0.603 1.188 -0.403-60.0 -0.494 1.091 0.235 0.5 0.545 0.006 -0.124 70.0 0.500 1.284 -0.423-55.0 -0.548 0.973 0.223 1.0 0.604 0.006 -0.125 75.0 0.378 1.347 -0.440-50.0 -0.601 0.854 0.212 1.5 0.664 0.007 -0.125 80.0 0.257 1.410 -0.457-45.0 -0.641 0.728 0.202 2.0 0.723 0.007 -0.126 85.0 0.128 1.431 -0.470-40.0 -0.671 0.602 0.194 2.5 0.782 0.007 -0.127 90.0 0.000 1.453 -0.483-38.0 -0.682 0.553 0.192 3.0 0.841 0.007 -0.128 95.0 -0.090 1.431 -0.489-36.0 -0.691 0.504 0.191 3.5 0.900 0.007 -0.129 100.0 -0.180 1.410 -0.495-34.0 -0.701 0.456 0.191 4.0 0.959 0.007 -0.130 105.0 -0.265 1.347 -0.493-32.0 -0.710 0.410 0.193 4.5 1.017 0.007 -0.131 110.0 -0.350 1.284 -0.491-30.0 -0.720 0.365 0.196 5.0 1.075 0.007 -0.131 115.0 -0.422 1.188 -0.483-28.0 -0.731 0.322 0.203 5.5 1.132 0.007 -0.132 120.0 -0.494 1.091 -0.474-26.0 -0.745 0.282 0.212 6.0 1.188 0.008 -0.133 125.0 -0.548 0.973 -0.463-24.0 -0.761 0.243 0.225 6.5 1.242 0.008 -0.133 130.0 -0.601 0.854 -0.452-22.0 -0.781 0.206 0.243 7.0 1.291 0.009 -0.132 135.0 -0.636 0.728 -0.442-20.0 -0.809 0.172 0.269 7.5 1.333 0.011 -0.130 140.0 -0.671 0.602 -0.433-19.0 -0.825 0.156 0.286 8.0 1.373 0.012 -0.128 145.0 -0.696 0.484 -0.435-18.0 -0.820 0.141 0.280 8.5 1.412 0.013 -0.126 150.0 -0.720 0.365 -0.436-17.0 -0.814 0.128 0.266 9.0 1.451 0.015 -0.124 155.0 -0.764 0.269 -0.472-16.0 -0.782 0.115 0.227 9.5 1.489 0.016 -0.122 160.0 -0.809 0.172 -0.509-15.0 -0.751 0.102 0.187 10.0 1.516 0.017 -0.122 165.0 -0.639 0.125 -0.504-14.0 -0.720 0.088 0.147 10.5 1.542 0.018 -0.122 170.0 -0.469 0.078 -0.500-13.5 -0.704 0.082 0.127 11.0 1.563 0.020 -0.122 175.0 -0.235 0.039 -0.250-13.0 -0.688 0.075 0.108 11.5 1.580 0.022 -0.122 180.0 0.000 0.000 0.000-12.5 -0.673 0.069 0.088 12.0 1.587 0.035 -0.124-12.0 -0.657 0.062 0.068 12.5 1.549 0.049 -0.125

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A.3 Blade Structure

Table 35: Position in respect to blade pitch axis of the structural components of the blade - Part I.

ηFirst Second Spar Caps Spar Caps Extension of the Extension of the

Shear Web Shear Web towards LE towards TE Reinf. at LE Reinf. at TE

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00 [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]0.08 [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]0.10 -257.6 342.4 -357.6 442.4 89.7 474.30.12 -252.2 347.8 -352.2 447.8 89.7 459.10.14 -246.9 353.1 -346.9 453.1 89.7 436.30.16 -241.5 358.5 -341.5 458.5 89.7 403.80.18 -236.2 363.8 -336.2 463.8 89.7 366.40.20 -233.5 366.5 -333.5 466.5 89.7 357.10.22 -228.2 371.8 -328.2 471.8 89.7 347.60.24 -222.8 377.2 -322.8 477.2 89.7 338.10.26 -217.5 382.5 -317.5 482.5 88.1 328.60.28 -212.1 387.9 -312.1 487.9 86.5 319.00.30 -209.4 390.6 -309.4 490.6 85.7 314.30.32 -204.1 395.9 -304.1 495.9 84.1 304.80.34 -198.7 401.3 -298.7 501.3 82.5 295.20.36 -193.4 406.6 -293.4 506.6 81.0 285.70.38 -188.0 412.0 -288.0 512.0 79.4 276.20.40 -185.4 414.6 -285.4 514.6 78.6 271.40.42 -180.0 420.0 -280.0 520.0 77.0 261.90.44 -174.7 425.3 -274.7 525.3 75.4 252.40.46 -169.3 430.7 -269.3 530.7 73.8 242.90.48 -164.0 436.0 -264.0 536.0 72.2 233.30.50 -161.3 438.7 -261.3 538.7 71.4 228.60.52 -155.9 444.1 -255.9 544.1 69.8 219.00.54 -150.6 449.4 -250.6 549.4 68.3 209.50.56 -145.2 454.8 -245.2 554.8 66.7 200.00.58 -139.9 460.1 -239.9 560.1 65.1 190.50.60 -137.2 462.8 -237.2 562.8 64.3 185.7

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Table 36: Position in respect to blade pitch axis of the structural components of the blade - Part II.

ηFirst Second Spar Caps Spar Caps Extension of the Extension of the

Shear Web Shear Web towards LE towards TE Reinf. at LE Reinf. at TE

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.62 -131.8 468.2 -231.8 568.2 62.7 176.20.64 -126.5 473.5 -226.5 573.5 61.1 166.70.66 -121.1 478.9 -221.1 578.9 59.5 157.10.68 -115.8 484.2 -215.8 584.2 57.9 147.60.70 -113.1 486.9 -213.1 586.9 57.1 142.90.72 -107.8 492.2 -207.8 592.2 54.2 134.70.74 -102.4 497.6 -202.4 597.6 49.0 128.80.76 -97.1 502.9 -197.1 602.9 43.9 122.80.78 -91.7 508.3 -191.7 608.3 39.2 116.30.80 -89.0 511.0 -189.0 611.0 37.1 112.90.82 -83.7 516.3 -183.7 616.3 [-] [-]0.84 -78.3 521.7 -178.3 621.7 [-] [-]0.86 -73.0 527.0 -173.0 627.0 [-] [-]0.88 -67.6 532.4 -167.6 632.4 [-] [-]0.90 -65.0 535.0 -165.0 635.0 [-] [-]0.92 -59.6 540.4 -159.6 640.4 [-] [-]0.94 -54.3 545.7 -154.3 645.7 [-] [-]0.96 [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]1.00 [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

79

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Table 37: Thickness of the structural components of the blade - Part I.

ηOuter Spar Shear LE TE

Shell Skin Caps Webs Skin Reinforcement Reinforcement

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00 65.00 [-] [-] [-] [-]0.01 60.00 [-] [-] [-] [-]0.02 55.00 [-] [-] [-] [-]0.03 50.00 [-] [-] [-] [-]0.04 45.71 [-] [-] [-] [-]0.05 41.43 [-] [-] [-] [-]0.06 37.14 [-] [-] [-] [-]0.07 32.86 [-] [-] [-] [-]0.08 28.57 [-] [-] [-] [-]0.10 20.00 9.93 1.00 3.10 1.180.12 16.87 15.95 1.08 3.19 2.240.14 13.74 21.96 1.16 3.27 3.300.16 10.60 27.97 1.25 3.35 4.370.18 7.47 33.99 1.33 3.44 5.430.20 4.34 40.00 1.41 3.52 6.490.22 3.74 44.76 1.61 3.26 6.690.24 3.15 49.52 1.82 2.99 6.880.26 2.56 54.28 2.02 2.73 7.070.28 1.96 59.04 2.22 2.46 7.260.30 1.37 63.80 2.42 2.20 7.450.32 1.34 61.22 2.49 2.06 7.320.34 1.30 58.64 2.56 1.92 7.190.36 1.27 56.05 2.64 1.79 7.050.38 1.24 53.47 2.71 1.65 6.920.40 1.21 50.89 2.78 1.51 6.790.42 1.16 50.46 2.89 1.45 7.200.44 1.12 50.03 3.01 1.39 7.610.46 1.08 49.59 3.12 1.32 8.020.48 1.04 49.16 3.23 1.26 8.430.50 1.00 48.73 3.35 1.20 8.840.52 1.00 47.23 3.45 1.25 7.670.54 1.00 45.74 3.56 1.30 6.500.56 1.00 44.24 3.67 1.35 5.330.58 1.00 42.74 3.78 1.40 4.160.60 1.00 41.24 3.89 1.45 2.990.62 1.00 38.84 3.88 1.42 2.590.64 1.00 36.44 3.88 1.40 2.200.66 1.00 34.03 3.88 1.38 1.800.68 1.00 31.63 3.88 1.36 1.400.70 1.00 29.22 3.87 1.34 1.000.72 1.02 29.39 3.64 1.43 1.150.74 1.04 29.56 3.40 1.52 1.290.76 1.06 29.73 3.17 1.61 1.440.78 1.07 29.89 2.93 1.71 1.590.80 1.09 30.06 2.69 1.80 1.73

80

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Table 38: Thickness of the structural components of the blade - Part II.

ηOuter Spar Shear LE TE

Shell Skin Caps Webs Skin Reinforcement Reinforcement

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.82 1.07 24.48 2.41 [-] [-]0.84 1.06 18.90 2.13 [-] [-]0.86 1.04 13.33 1.85 [-] [-]0.88 1.02 7.75 1.57 [-] [-]0.90 1.00 2.17 1.29 [-] [-]0.92 1.00 2.09 1.28 [-] [-]0.94 1.00 2.00 1.27 [-] [-]0.96 1.00 [-] [-] [-] [-]0.98 1.00 [-] [-] [-] [-]1.00 1.00 [-] [-] [-] [-]

81

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Table 39: Thickness of the core in the sandwich panels of the blade.

ηTE LE LE TE First Second

SS SS PS PS Shear Web Shear Web

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00 [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]0.03 [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]0.04 1.29 0.71 0.14 1.29 6.14 7.000.05 2.57 1.43 0.29 2.57 12.29 14.000.06 3.86 2.14 0.43 3.86 18.43 21.000.07 5.14 2.86 0.57 5.14 24.57 28.000.08 6.43 3.57 0.71 6.43 30.71 35.000.10 9.00 5.00 1.00 9.00 43.00 49.000.12 16.20 7.00 3.40 14.60 41.00 47.000.14 23.40 9.00 5.80 20.20 39.00 45.000.16 30.60 11.00 8.20 25.80 37.00 43.000.18 37.80 13.00 10.60 31.40 35.00 41.000.20 45.00 15.00 13.00 37.00 33.00 39.000.22 48.20 14.20 12.60 43.80 32.20 37.800.24 51.40 13.40 12.20 50.60 31.40 36.600.26 54.60 12.60 11.80 57.40 30.60 35.400.28 57.80 11.80 11.40 64.20 29.80 34.200.30 61.00 11.00 11.00 71.00 29.00 33.000.32 60.60 10.60 10.60 68.20 28.20 31.800.34 60.20 10.20 10.20 65.40 27.40 30.600.36 59.80 9.80 9.80 62.60 26.60 29.400.38 59.40 9.40 9.40 59.80 25.80 28.200.40 59.00 9.00 9.00 57.00 25.00 27.000.42 55.40 8.60 9.00 51.80 23.80 25.400.44 51.80 8.20 9.00 46.60 22.60 23.800.46 48.20 7.80 9.00 41.40 21.40 22.200.48 44.60 7.40 9.00 36.20 20.20 20.600.50 41.00 7.00 9.00 31.00 19.00 19.000.52 39.40 7.00 9.00 29.00 18.20 17.800.54 37.80 7.00 9.00 27.00 17.40 16.600.56 36.20 7.00 9.00 25.00 16.60 15.400.58 34.60 7.00 9.00 23.00 15.80 14.200.60 33.00 7.00 9.00 21.00 15.00 13.000.62 30.60 7.00 8.60 19.00 14.60 12.200.64 28.20 7.00 8.20 17.00 14.20 11.400.66 25.80 7.00 7.80 15.00 13.80 10.600.68 23.40 7.00 7.40 13.00 13.40 9.800.70 21.00 7.00 7.00 11.00 13.00 9.000.72 19.40 7.00 7.00 10.20 12.60 8.600.74 17.80 7.00 7.00 9.40 12.20 8.200.76 16.20 7.00 7.00 8.60 11.80 7.800.78 14.60 7.00 7.00 7.80 11.40 7.400.80 13.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 11.00 7.000.82 13.40 6.60 6.60 7.40 10.60 6.600.84 13.80 6.20 6.20 7.80 10.20 6.200.86 14.20 5.80 5.80 8.20 9.80 5.800.88 14.60 5.40 5.40 8.60 9.40 5.400.90 15.00 5.00 5.00 9.00 9.00 5.000.92 10.00 4.00 4.00 6.00 7.00 4.000.94 5.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 5.00 3.000.96 [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]1.00 [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

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Table 40: Mass and stiffness properties of the blade - Part I.

η T11 T22 EA E11 E22 GJ Mass

[-] [N] [N] [N] [Nm2 ] [Nm2] [Nm2] [kg/m]

0.00 2.44E+09 2.44E+09 1.13E+10 9.05E+09 9.05E+09 7.82E+09 9.64E+020.01 2.25E+09 2.25E+09 1.04E+10 8.40E+09 8.40E+09 7.26E+09 8.92E+020.02 2.07E+09 2.07E+09 9.58E+09 7.75E+09 7.75E+09 6.69E+09 8.20E+020.03 1.90E+09 1.88E+09 8.75E+09 7.10E+09 7.20E+09 6.18E+09 7.50E+020.04 1.79E+09 1.70E+09 8.09E+09 6.58E+09 6.94E+09 5.83E+09 7.03E+020.05 1.70E+09 1.52E+09 7.46E+09 6.07E+09 6.81E+09 5.54E+09 6.58E+020.06 1.62E+09 1.33E+09 6.85E+09 5.58E+09 6.80E+09 5.28E+09 6.15E+020.07 1.52E+09 1.12E+09 6.15E+09 4.85E+09 6.55E+09 4.79E+09 5.65E+020.08 1.39E+09 9.17E+08 5.41E+09 4.05E+09 6.16E+09 4.18E+09 5.11E+020.10 1.10E+09 5.21E+08 5.26E+09 3.33E+09 6.86E+09 2.74E+09 4.83E+020.12 1.03E+09 3.96E+08 5.11E+09 2.86E+09 7.03E+09 2.20E+09 4.53E+020.14 9.14E+08 3.19E+08 4.84E+09 2.59E+09 6.66E+09 1.83E+09 4.16E+020.16 7.49E+08 2.47E+08 4.52E+09 2.36E+09 5.73E+09 1.40E+09 3.78E+020.18 5.54E+08 1.79E+08 4.32E+09 2.19E+09 5.15E+09 9.55E+08 3.48E+020.20 3.37E+08 1.23E+08 4.12E+09 2.06E+09 4.48E+09 5.51E+08 3.17E+020.22 2.96E+08 1.16E+08 4.29E+09 2.10E+09 4.29E+09 4.48E+08 3.24E+020.24 2.54E+08 1.09E+08 4.44E+09 2.12E+09 3.85E+09 3.50E+08 3.28E+020.26 2.10E+08 1.04E+08 4.61E+09 2.14E+09 3.43E+09 2.64E+08 3.34E+020.28 1.64E+08 9.92E+07 4.78E+09 2.15E+09 3.04E+09 1.92E+08 3.40E+020.30 1.17E+08 9.45E+07 4.97E+09 2.14E+09 2.69E+09 1.32E+08 3.46E+020.32 1.14E+08 9.31E+07 4.77E+09 1.94E+09 2.48E+09 1.18E+08 3.33E+020.34 1.11E+08 9.11E+07 4.57E+09 1.73E+09 2.29E+09 1.08E+08 3.19E+020.36 1.07E+08 8.89E+07 4.37E+09 1.54E+09 2.09E+09 9.77E+07 3.06E+020.38 1.04E+08 8.64E+07 4.16E+09 1.35E+09 1.87E+09 8.81E+07 2.92E+020.40 9.99E+07 8.38E+07 3.96E+09 1.18E+09 1.67E+09 7.90E+07 2.79E+020.42 9.54E+07 8.18E+07 3.92E+09 1.05E+09 1.54E+09 7.08E+07 2.71E+020.44 9.11E+07 7.94E+07 3.87E+09 9.35E+08 1.41E+09 6.31E+07 2.63E+020.46 8.69E+07 7.68E+07 3.83E+09 8.23E+08 1.27E+09 5.60E+07 2.55E+020.48 8.30E+07 7.40E+07 3.78E+09 7.18E+08 1.14E+09 4.95E+07 2.47E+020.50 7.90E+07 7.12E+07 3.74E+09 6.23E+08 1.04E+09 4.38E+07 2.39E+020.52 8.33E+07 6.83E+07 3.60E+09 5.25E+08 8.37E+08 3.90E+07 2.29E+020.54 9.01E+07 6.55E+07 3.46E+09 4.41E+08 6.76E+08 3.49E+07 2.19E+020.56 1.00E+08 6.29E+07 3.32E+09 3.69E+08 5.46E+08 3.13E+07 2.10E+020.58 1.15E+08 6.10E+07 3.19E+09 3.07E+08 4.41E+08 2.80E+07 2.01E+020.60 1.34E+08 5.99E+07 3.06E+09 2.56E+08 3.61E+08 2.51E+07 1.91E+020.62 1.44E+08 5.55E+07 2.88E+09 2.11E+08 3.11E+08 2.22E+07 1.81E+020.64 1.54E+08 5.15E+07 2.70E+09 1.74E+08 2.70E+08 1.97E+07 1.70E+020.66 1.61E+08 4.78E+07 2.52E+09 1.44E+08 2.35E+08 1.76E+07 1.60E+020.68 1.65E+08 4.45E+07 2.34E+09 1.20E+08 2.06E+08 1.57E+07 1.50E+020.70 1.63E+08 4.13E+07 2.17E+09 9.97E+07 1.81E+08 1.41E+07 1.39E+020.72 1.66E+08 3.67E+07 2.17E+09 8.91E+07 1.78E+08 1.26E+07 1.39E+020.74 1.68E+08 3.28E+07 2.18E+09 8.02E+07 1.75E+08 1.14E+07 1.38E+020.76 1.69E+08 2.93E+07 2.19E+09 7.28E+07 1.73E+08 1.03E+07 1.37E+020.78 1.71E+08 2.63E+07 2.20E+09 6.70E+07 1.72E+08 9.37E+06 1.36E+020.80 1.72E+08 2.37E+07 2.21E+09 6.26E+07 1.72E+08 8.64E+06 1.36E+02

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Table 41: Mass and stiffness properties of the blade - Part II.

η T11 T22 EA E11 E22 GJ Mass

[-] [N] [N] [N] [Nm2 ] [Nm2] [Nm2] [kg/m]

0.82 1.47E+08 2.08E+07 1.79E+09 4.98E+07 1.22E+08 7.42E+06 1.15E+020.84 1.20E+08 1.80E+07 1.40E+09 3.78E+07 9.91E+07 6.38E+06 9.67E+010.86 9.27E+07 1.51E+07 1.01E+09 2.61E+07 7.58E+07 5.23E+06 7.79E+010.88 6.46E+07 1.19E+07 6.24E+08 1.47E+07 5.16E+07 3.89E+06 5.90E+010.90 3.55E+07 8.22E+06 2.33E+08 4.44E+06 2.63E+07 2.27E+06 4.00E+010.92 3.23E+07 7.00E+06 2.19E+08 3.34E+06 2.15E+07 1.76E+06 3.68E+010.94 2.82E+07 5.35E+06 2.03E+08 2.14E+06 1.66E+07 1.18E+06 3.34E+010.96 1.59E+07 1.02E+06 4.59E+07 2.38E+05 4.08E+06 3.70E+05 2.51E+010.98 1.02E+07 6.54E+05 2.96E+07 6.33E+04 1.09E+06 9.82E+04 2.38E+011.00 3.09E+06 1.96E+05 8.96E+06 1.74E+03 3.03E+04 2.70E+03 2.20E+01

84

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Table 42: Mass and stiffness properties of the blade - Part III.

η Centroid Xs Centroid Ys Mass Center x Mass Center y ∆Θ J3 J1 J2

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [deg] [kgm2/m] [kgm2/m] [kgm2/m]

0.00 -5.14E-05 2.15E-04 -5.14E-05 2.15E-04 7.97E+01 1.53E+03 7.66E+02 7.66E+020.01 -9.10E-03 2.15E-04 -9.10E-03 2.15E-04 7.98E+01 1.42E+03 7.12E+02 7.12E+020.02 -1.82E-02 2.16E-04 -1.82E-02 2.16E-04 7.96E+01 1.31E+03 6.56E+02 6.56E+020.03 -3.79E-02 -4.81E-04 -3.79E-02 -4.81E-04 -2.91E+00 1.21E+03 6.02E+02 6.10E+020.04 -7.80E-02 -2.21E-03 -7.80E-02 -2.21E-03 -2.62E+00 1.14E+03 5.57E+02 5.87E+020.05 -1.37E-01 -4.94E-03 -1.37E-01 -4.94E-03 -2.42E+00 1.09E+03 5.14E+02 5.77E+020.06 -2.16E-01 -9.13E-03 -2.16E-01 -9.13E-03 -2.10E+00 1.05E+03 4.73E+02 5.76E+020.07 -2.90E-01 -1.46E-02 -2.90E-01 -1.46E-02 -1.66E+00 9.65E+02 4.11E+02 5.54E+020.08 -3.66E-01 -2.09E-02 -3.66E-01 -2.09E-02 -1.20E+00 8.65E+02 3.43E+02 5.22E+020.10 -6.00E-01 -5.68E-02 -6.25E-01 -6.05E-02 2.55E+00 8.03E+02 2.53E+02 5.50E+020.12 -6.67E-01 -6.07E-02 -7.03E-01 -6.72E-02 3.21E+00 7.45E+02 2.04E+02 5.41E+020.14 -6.48E-01 -4.71E-02 -6.98E-01 -5.58E-02 2.82E+00 6.64E+02 1.74E+02 4.90E+020.16 -5.66E-01 -3.00E-02 -6.30E-01 -3.96E-02 2.14E+00 5.53E+02 1.47E+02 4.06E+020.18 -5.15E-01 -2.34E-02 -5.88E-01 -3.30E-02 2.66E+00 4.71E+02 1.26E+02 3.45E+020.20 -4.49E-01 -1.63E-02 -5.13E-01 -2.41E-02 3.23E+00 3.85E+02 1.09E+02 2.75E+020.22 -4.12E-01 -1.28E-02 -4.75E-01 -1.88E-02 3.09E+00 3.69E+02 1.08E+02 2.61E+020.24 -3.61E-01 -1.04E-02 -4.20E-01 -1.34E-02 2.39E+00 3.38E+02 1.07E+02 2.31E+020.26 -3.19E-01 -1.16E-02 -3.69E-01 -1.25E-02 2.22E+00 3.08E+02 1.06E+02 2.03E+020.28 -2.83E-01 -1.47E-02 -3.23E-01 -1.43E-02 3.04E+00 2.79E+02 1.04E+02 1.75E+020.30 -2.53E-01 -1.89E-02 -2.80E-01 -1.79E-02 5.82E+00 2.51E+02 1.03E+02 1.48E+020.32 -2.54E-01 -2.27E-02 -2.80E-01 -2.12E-02 6.00E+00 2.30E+02 9.31E+01 1.37E+020.34 -2.57E-01 -2.80E-02 -2.83E-01 -2.63E-02 6.80E+00 2.10E+02 8.33E+01 1.26E+020.36 -2.59E-01 -3.20E-02 -2.83E-01 -3.02E-02 7.45E+00 1.89E+02 7.39E+01 1.15E+020.38 -2.60E-01 -3.47E-02 -2.82E-01 -3.29E-02 7.93E+00 1.68E+02 6.50E+01 1.03E+020.40 -2.58E-01 -3.62E-02 -2.79E-01 -3.44E-02 7.86E+00 1.48E+02 5.66E+01 9.18E+010.42 -2.59E-01 -3.67E-02 -2.77E-01 -3.51E-02 7.61E+00 1.34E+02 5.07E+01 8.37E+010.44 -2.59E-01 -3.64E-02 -2.73E-01 -3.49E-02 7.30E+00 1.20E+02 4.49E+01 7.55E+010.46 -2.58E-01 -3.53E-02 -2.69E-01 -3.40E-02 6.88E+00 1.07E+02 3.95E+01 6.76E+010.48 -2.56E-01 -3.39E-02 -2.65E-01 -3.27E-02 6.32E+00 9.45E+01 3.44E+01 6.01E+010.50 -2.54E-01 -3.22E-02 -2.61E-01 -3.12E-02 5.36E+00 8.38E+01 2.97E+01 5.40E+010.52 -2.40E-01 -3.06E-02 -2.47E-01 -2.98E-02 6.06E+00 6.91E+01 2.51E+01 4.40E+010.54 -2.27E-01 -2.36E-02 -2.33E-01 -2.29E-02 7.34E+00 5.70E+01 2.11E+01 3.59E+010.56 -2.16E-01 -1.55E-02 -2.22E-01 -1.50E-02 8.80E+00 4.69E+01 1.76E+01 2.93E+010.58 -2.06E-01 -7.92E-03 -2.12E-01 -7.53E-03 1.02E+01 3.87E+01 1.47E+01 2.40E+010.60 -1.96E-01 -1.08E-03 -2.02E-01 -8.10E-04 1.13E+01 3.22E+01 1.23E+01 1.99E+010.62 -1.95E-01 5.28E-03 -2.01E-01 5.44E-03 9.50E+00 2.73E+01 1.01E+01 1.72E+010.64 -1.96E-01 1.07E-02 -2.00E-01 1.08E-02 8.00E+00 2.33E+01 8.33E+00 1.50E+010.66 -1.96E-01 1.51E-02 -2.00E-01 1.51E-02 6.68E+00 2.00E+01 6.90E+00 1.31E+010.68 -1.97E-01 1.87E-02 -2.01E-01 1.86E-02 5.62E+00 1.73E+01 5.75E+00 1.16E+010.70 -1.97E-01 2.22E-02 -2.00E-01 2.21E-02 4.54E+00 1.51E+01 4.78E+00 1.03E+010.72 -2.01E-01 2.59E-02 -2.04E-01 2.57E-02 3.42E+00 1.42E+01 4.26E+00 9.96E+000.74 -2.06E-01 2.90E-02 -2.09E-01 2.88E-02 2.66E+00 1.35E+01 3.83E+00 9.72E+000.76 -2.11E-01 3.19E-02 -2.14E-01 3.16E-02 2.13E+00 1.30E+01 3.47E+00 9.52E+000.78 -2.16E-01 3.43E-02 -2.19E-01 3.40E-02 1.76E+00 1.26E+01 3.19E+00 9.37E+000.80 -2.19E-01 3.62E-02 -2.22E-01 3.59E-02 1.51E+00 1.23E+01 2.98E+00 9.31E+00

85

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Table 43: Mass and stiffness properties of the blade - Part IV.

η Centroid Xs Centroid Ys Mass Ctr x Mass Ctr y ∆Θ J3 J1 J2

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [deg] [kg m2/m] [kg m2/m] [kg m2/m]

0.82 -2.20E-01 3.82E-02 -2.23E-01 3.79E-02 1.82E+00 9.24E+00 2.38E+00 6.86E+000.84 -2.27E-01 3.93E-02 -2.31E-01 3.89E-02 1.55E+00 7.54E+00 1.82E+00 5.72E+000.86 -2.35E-01 3.95E-02 -2.40E-01 3.90E-02 1.13E+00 5.81E+00 1.27E+00 4.55E+000.88 -2.44E-01 3.86E-02 -2.51E-01 3.79E-02 4.97E-01 4.02E+00 7.34E-01 3.29E+000.90 -2.63E-01 3.54E-02 -2.72E-01 3.43E-02 -5.02E-01 2.19E+00 2.50E-01 1.95E+000.92 -2.59E-01 3.27E-02 -2.64E-01 3.16E-02 -7.22E-01 1.74E+00 1.88E-01 1.55E+000.94 -2.52E-01 2.89E-02 -2.52E-01 2.77E-02 -9.71E-01 1.26E+00 1.20E-01 1.14E+000.96 -2.24E-01 1.90E-02 -2.24E-01 1.90E-02 -1.13E+00 3.66E-01 2.02E-02 3.46E-010.98 -1.46E-01 1.23E-02 -1.46E-01 1.23E-02 -1.14E+00 9.75E-02 5.36E-03 9.22E-021.00 -4.70E-02 3.78E-03 -4.70E-02 3.78E-03 -1.20E+00 2.72E-03 1.47E-04 2.57E-03

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A.4 Nacelle Assembly

Table 44: Aeroelastic modeling of the nacelle of the land-based wind turbine.

Data Value

Hub Inertia About Shaft Axis 60131.00 kg m2

Hub Inertia Off Shaft Axis 300650.00 kg m2

Axial Stiffness 1E+12 NBending and Torsional Stiffness 1E+12 N m2

Nacelle Inertia About Yaw Axis 1210200.00 kg m2

Nacelle Inertia Rolling 177200.00 kg m2

Nacelle Inertia Nodding 370330.00 kg m2

Nacelle Length 12.00 mNacelle Width 6.00 mNacelle Height 5.00 mLocation CoG Nacelle Downwind of Yaw Axis 0.10 mLocation CoG Nacelle Above the Yaw Bearing 0.58 mVertical Distance Along Yaw Axis from Yaw Bearing to Shaft 2.00 mNacelle Drag Coefficient 0.5Axial Stiffness 1E+12 NBending and Torsional Stiffness 1E+12 N m2

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A.5 Tower Structure

Table 45: Structure of the tower of the land-based wind turbine.

ηWall Outer Section

Thickness Diameter Area

[-] [mm] [m] [m2]

0.00 56.97 5.99 1.06E+000.10 56.97 5.93 1.05E+000.10 50.47 5.93 9.32E-010.20 50.47 5.93 9.32E-010.20 46.64 5.93 8.62E-010.30 46.64 5.93 8.62E-010.30 39.35 5.93 7.28E-010.40 39.35 5.93 7.28E-010.40 33.54 5.93 6.21E-010.50 33.54 5.93 6.21E-010.50 28.01 5.93 5.19E-010.60 28.01 5.85 5.12E-010.60 23.57 5.85 4.31E-010.70 23.57 5.12 3.77E-010.70 23.74 5.12 3.80E-010.80 23.74 4.36 3.23E-010.80 22.41 4.36 3.05E-010.90 22.41 3.61 2.52E-010.90 26.74 3.61 3.01E-011.00 26.74 3.00 2.50E-01

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Table 46: Elastic properties of the tower of the land-based wind turbine.

η MassAxial Bending Torsional Shear Polar Moment

Stiffness Stiffness Stiffness Stiffness of Inertia

[-] [kg/m3] [N] [Nm2] [Nm2] [N] [m4]

0.00 9.02E+03 2.23E+11 9.80E+11 7.54E+11 4.29E+10 9.33E+000.10 8.93E+03 2.21E+11 9.51E+11 7.31E+11 4.24E+10 9.05E+000.10 7.92E+03 1.96E+11 8.45E+11 6.50E+11 3.76E+10 8.05E+000.20 7.92E+03 1.96E+11 8.45E+11 6.50E+11 3.76E+10 8.05E+000.20 7.33E+03 1.81E+11 7.82E+11 6.02E+11 3.48E+10 7.45E+000.30 7.33E+03 1.81E+11 7.82E+11 6.02E+11 3.48E+10 7.45E+000.30 6.19E+03 1.53E+11 6.63E+11 5.10E+11 2.94E+10 6.31E+000.40 6.19E+03 1.53E+11 6.63E+11 5.10E+11 2.94E+10 6.31E+000.40 5.28E+03 1.30E+11 5.66E+11 4.36E+11 2.51E+10 5.39E+000.50 5.28E+03 1.30E+11 5.66E+11 4.36E+11 2.51E+10 5.39E+000.50 4.41E+03 1.09E+11 4.74E+11 3.65E+11 2.10E+10 4.52E+000.60 4.35E+03 1.08E+11 4.56E+11 3.51E+11 2.07E+10 4.34E+000.60 3.67E+03 9.06E+10 3.85E+11 2.96E+11 1.74E+10 3.66E+000.70 3.21E+03 7.92E+10 2.57E+11 1.97E+11 1.52E+10 2.44E+000.70 3.23E+03 7.97E+10 2.59E+11 1.99E+11 1.53E+10 2.46E+000.80 2.75E+03 6.79E+10 1.60E+11 1.23E+11 1.31E+10 1.52E+000.80 2.60E+03 6.42E+10 1.51E+11 1.16E+11 1.23E+10 1.44E+000.90 2.15E+03 5.30E+10 8.52E+10 6.55E+10 1.02E+10 8.11E-010.90 2.56E+03 6.32E+10 1.01E+11 7.79E+10 1.21E+10 9.64E-011.00 2.12E+03 5.25E+10 5.80E+10 4.46E+10 1.01E+10 5.52E-01

89

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A.6 Loads Tables

Table 47: Load envelope at blade root. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x -flapwise direction, y - edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz[N] [N] [N] [Nm] [Nm] [Nm]

Loads @ max Fx 3.98E+05 -2.47E+05 8.86E+05 1.12E+07 1.03E+07 -2.33E+04Loads @ min Fx -2.86E+05 -3.05E+04 6.31E+05 -1.70E+06 -8.57E+06 1.59E+05Loads @ max Fy -8.68E+04 2.90E+05 -8.90E+04 -7.24E+06 -2.53E+06 1.69E+05Loads @ min Fy 2.35E+04 -5.94E+05 8.84E+05 1.90E+07 3.16E+06 -1.02E+05Loads @ max Fz 2.01E+05 -2.27E+05 1.13E+06 8.34E+06 6.34E+06 -5.97E+04Loads @ min Fz -8.23E+04 1.33E+05 -1.84E+05 -3.67E+06 -2.74E+06 4.95E+04Loads @ max Mx 2.35E+04 -5.94E+05 8.84E+05 1.90E+07 3.16E+06 -1.02E+05Loads @ min Mx -9.10E+04 2.88E+05 -6.29E+04 -7.51E+06 -2.80E+06 1.52E+05Loads @ max My 3.83E+05 -1.12E+05 7.39E+05 4.88E+06 1.04E+07 -1.46E+05Loads @ min My -2.86E+05 -3.05E+04 6.31E+05 -1.70E+06 -8.57E+06 1.59E+05Loads @ max Mz -1.09E+05 1.75E+05 -8.34E+04 -4.13E+06 -2.43E+06 2.00E+05Loads @ min Mz -1.19E+05 -2.45E+05 4.75E+05 7.04E+06 -1.48E+06 -3.28E+05Loads @ max Fxy 2.35E+04 -5.94E+05 8.84E+05 1.90E+07 3.16E+06 -1.02E+05Loads @ max Mxy 2.35E+04 -5.94E+05 8.84E+05 1.90E+07 3.16E+06 -1.02E+05

Fxy Mxy Blade DLC Time Safety Factor[N] [Nm] [-] [-] [sec] [-]

Loads @ max Fx 4.69E+05 1.52E+07 Blade 2 DLC13 13 m/s 266.4 1.35Loads @ min Fx 2.88E+05 8.74E+06 Blade 1 DLC23 rated + 2 m/s 41.8 1.10Loads @ max Fy 3.02E+05 7.67E+06 Blade 1 DLC62 60 deg 157.6 1.10Loads @ min Fy 5.95E+05 1.92E+07 Blade 3 DLC13 9 m/s 211.5 1.35Loads @ max Fz 3.03E+05 1.05E+07 Blade 2 DLC13 15 m/s 331.6 1.35Loads @ min Fz 1.57E+05 4.58E+06 Blade 1 DLC61 8 deg 131.7 1.10Loads @ max Mx 5.95E+05 1.92E+07 Blade 3 DLC13 9 m/s 211.5 1.35Loads @ min Mx 3.02E+05 8.01E+06 Blade 1 DLC62 60 deg 443.0 1.10Loads @ max My 3.99E+05 1.15E+07 Blade 3 DLC13 23 m/s 306.0 1.35Loads @ min My 2.88E+05 8.74E+06 Blade 1 DLC23 rated + 2 m/s 41.8 1.10Loads @ max Mz 2.06E+05 4.79E+06 Blade 3 DLC62 150 deg 156.2 1.10Loads @ min Mz 2.73E+05 7.19E+06 Blade 1 DLC13 9 m/s 98.8 1.35Loads @ max Fxy 5.95E+05 1.92E+07 Blade 3 DLC13 9 m/s 211.5 1.35Loads @ max Mxy 5.95E+05 1.92E+07 Blade 3 DLC13 9 m/s 211.5 1.35

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Table 48: Load envelope at hub center. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x -aligned with the shaft, pointing downwind, y - in the rotor plane, z - in the rotor plane.

Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz[N] [N] [N] [Nm] [Nm] [Nm]

Loads @ max Fx 1.25E+06 -6.61E+04 -1.03E+06 5.89E+06 3.24E+06 4.43E+06Loads @ min Fx -5.90E+05 -1.65E+04 -8.39E+05 1.90E+05 2.99E+06 -3.46E+06Loads @ max Fy -3.50E+04 5.38E+05 -7.27E+05 3.94E+03 2.89E+06 1.22E+06Loads @ min Fy 6.18E+04 -5.43E+05 -6.53E+05 -4.93E+03 4.22E+05 -1.33E+06Loads @ max Fz 1.15E+05 5.47E+03 -3.60E+05 -2.04E+03 6.99E+05 1.58E+06Loads @ min Fz 5.20E+05 9.34E+04 -1.37E+06 3.04E+06 8.55E+05 2.02E+06Loads @ max Mx 9.31E+05 2.20E+03 -1.03E+06 6.03E+06 -3.68E+05 2.64E+06Loads @ min Mx 6.67E+04 2.24E+05 -5.97E+05 -2.20E+04 2.45E+06 1.94E+06Loads @ max My 4.77E+05 -6.81E+04 -1.05E+06 4.20E+06 1.23E+07 4.21E+06Loads @ min My 4.11E+05 1.53E+05 -9.30E+05 4.22E+06 -1.28E+07 -1.22E+06Loads @ max Mz 7.49E+05 4.61E+01 -1.11E+06 4.74E+06 4.32E+06 1.09E+07Loads @ min Mz 1.87E+05 -5.57E+04 -9.07E+05 4.24E+06 -2.85E+06 -1.17E+07Loads @ max Fxy 5.20E+05 9.34E+04 -1.37E+06 3.04E+06 8.55E+05 2.02E+06Loads @ max Mxy 4.77E+05 -6.81E+04 -1.05E+06 4.20E+06 1.23E+07 4.21E+06

Fxy Mxy DLC Time Safety Factor[N] [Nm] [-] [sec] [-]

Loads @ max Fx 1.03E+06 5.49E+06 DLC13 9 m/s 211.84 1.35Loads @ min Fx 8.40E+05 4.57E+06 DLC23 rated + 2 m/s 42.18 1.10Loads @ max Fy 9.04E+05 3.14E+06 DLC62 -120 deg 99.98 1.10Loads @ min Fy 8.49E+05 1.39E+06 DLC62 60 deg 99.38 1.10Loads @ max Fz 3.60E+05 1.72E+06 DLC61 0 deg 147.00 1.10Loads @ min Fz 1.37E+06 2.20E+06 DLC13 9 m/s 317.84 1.35Loads @ max Mx 1.03E+06 2.67E+06 DLC13 11 m/s 387.58 1.35Loads @ min Mx 6.37E+05 3.12E+06 DLC62 -30 deg 140.98 1.10Loads @ max My 1.05E+06 1.30E+07 DLC13 19 m/s 522.78 1.35Loads @ min My 9.42E+05 1.29E+07 DLC13 17 m/s 214.78 1.35Loads @ max Mz 1.11E+06 1.17E+07 DLC13 13 m/s 294.20 1.35Loads @ min Mz 9.09E+05 1.20E+07 DLC13 21 m/s 246.38 1.35Loads @ max Fxy 1.37E+06 2.20E+06 DLC13 9 m/s 317.84 1.35Loads @ max Mxy 1.05E+06 1.30E+07 DLC13 19 m/s 522.78 1.35

91

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Table 49: Load envelope at tower base. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x -aligned with the ground, pointing downwind, y - side, z - aligned with the tower, pointing upwards.

Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz[N] [N] [N] [Nm] [Nm] [Nm]

Loads @ max Fx 1.17E+06 4.80E+04 -3.64E+06 5.98E+06 -3.24E+06 2.31E+06Loads @ min Fx -1.02E+06 -3.38E+04 -2.86E+06 -1.55E+05 -5.83E+06 -3.36E+06Loads @ max Fy 1.90E+05 4.85E+05 -2.82E+06 -1.49E+06 -1.83E+06 -1.53E+06Loads @ min Fy -4.26E+04 -7.43E+05 -2.75E+06 2.30E+06 -3.24E+06 2.59E+06Loads @ max Fz -1.51E+04 2.00E+05 -2.40E+06 -2.14E+05 5.93E+05 5.74E+05Loads @ min Fz 2.04E+05 -4.57E+04 -3.79E+06 2.53E+06 -1.58E+06 3.72E+05Loads @ max Mx 8.60E+05 -1.86E+03 -3.67E+06 6.40E+06 -9.30E+05 6.29E+06Loads @ min Mx 3.62E+05 -6.27E+04 -2.89E+06 -2.90E+06 2.44E+06 -1.32E+06Loads @ max My 3.47E+05 -5.87E+04 -3.51E+06 4.22E+06 1.28E+07 -1.06E+06Loads @ min My 4.69E+05 1.18E+05 -3.61E+06 4.34E+06 -1.25E+07 3.79E+06Loads @ max Mz 4.19E+05 -2.45E+04 -3.65E+06 5.27E+06 -3.44E+06 1.08E+07Loads @ min Mz 3.76E+04 9.19E+04 -3.44E+06 3.00E+06 2.40E+06 -1.22E+07Loads @ max Fxy 1.17E+06 4.80E+04 -3.64E+06 5.98E+06 -3.24E+06 2.31E+06Loads @ max Mxy 3.47E+05 -5.87E+04 -3.51E+06 4.22E+06 1.28E+07 -1.06E+06

Fxy Mxy DLC Time Safety Factor[N] [Nm] [-] [sec] [-]

Loads @ max Fx 1.17E+06 6.81E+06 DLC13 9 m/s 212.24 1.35Loads @ min Fx 1.02E+06 5.83E+06 DLC23 rated + 2 m/s 42.38 1.10Loads @ max Fy 5.21E+05 2.36E+06 DLC63 20 deg 267.00 1.10Loads @ min Fy 7.44E+05 3.97E+06 DLC63 -20 deg 433.36 1.10Loads @ max Fz 2.01E+05 6.30E+05 DLC61 8 deg 88.88 1.10Loads @ min Fz 2.09E+05 2.98E+06 DLC13 9 m/s 315.34 1.35Loads @ max Mx 8.60E+05 6.47E+06 DLC13 13 m/s 210.40 1.35Loads @ min Mx 3.67E+05 3.79E+06 DLC62 120 deg 294.18 1.10Loads @ max My 3.52E+05 1.35E+07 DLC13 17 m/s 214.78 1.35Loads @ min My 4.84E+05 1.33E+07 DLC13 19 m/s 522.78 1.35Loads @ max Mz 4.20E+05 6.29E+06 DLC13 19 m/s 327.58 1.35Loads @ min Mz 9.93E+04 3.84E+06 DLC13 21 m/s 246.38 1.35Loads @ max Fxy 1.17E+06 6.81E+06 DLC13 9 m/s 212.24 1.35Loads @ max Mxy 3.52E+05 1.35E+07 DLC13 17 m/s 214.78 1.35

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Table 50: Weibull weighted damage equivalent loads (DEL) for a number of cycles equal to 106.

Component Sensor Wohler exponent DEL Ref. coordinate system

Blade root Mx 10 8363.34 kNm see label Table 47Blade root My 10 7792.40 kNm see label Table 47Blade root Mz 10 69.66 kNm see label Table 47

Blade root Mx 4 11444.60 kNm see label Table 47Blade root My 4 7039.50 kNm see label Table 47Blade root Mz 4 77.06 kNm see label Table 47

Hub center Fx 9 365.92 kN see label Table 48Hub center My 9 7160.58 kNm see label Table 48Hub center Mz 9 6859.69 kNm see label Table 48

Hub center Fx 4 296.01 kN see label Table 48Hub center My 4 5871.74 kNm see label Table 48Hub center Mz 4 5775.56 kNm see label Table 48

Tower base Mx 9 2313.52 kNm see label Table 49Tower base My 9 7168.28 kNm see label Table 49

Tower base Mx 4 1598.93 kNm see label Table 49Tower base My 4 5876.13 kNm see label Table 49

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B Offshore Reference Turbine Detailed Properties and Loads

B.1 Blade Aerodynamic Shape

Tables 51 and 52 contain the data describing the aerodynamic planform of the 10-MW offshore blade.

Table 51: Aerodynamic shape of the offshore wind turbine blade. Part I.

η Chord Twist Rel. Thick. Abs. Thick. PreBend Sweep Pitch Ax.

[-] [mm] [deg] [%] [mm] [mm] [mm] [%]

0.0000 4600.000 12.000 99.870 4.594 -0.000 0.000 0.5000.0176 4593.104 12.003 99.796 4.584 -7.832 0.000 0.5030.0313 4597.803 12.001 98.251 4.517 -14.683 0.000 0.5010.0420 4614.757 11.996 95.681 4.415 -20.913 0.000 0.4950.0507 4638.643 11.992 92.711 4.301 -26.472 0.000 0.4870.0579 4665.984 11.991 89.654 4.183 -31.390 0.000 0.4800.0642 4695.442 11.992 86.681 4.070 -35.840 0.000 0.4730.0700 4728.094 11.998 83.692 3.957 -40.088 0.000 0.4660.0758 4765.838 12.008 80.547 3.839 -44.401 0.000 0.4590.0821 4811.777 12.022 77.087 3.709 -49.108 0.000 0.4520.0893 4871.281 12.035 73.106 3.561 -54.578 0.000 0.4440.0980 4951.324 12.036 68.441 3.389 -61.265 0.000 0.4350.1087 5062.753 12.009 62.967 3.188 -69.742 0.000 0.4230.1224 5220.160 11.888 56.669 2.958 -80.751 0.000 0.4080.1400 5436.982 11.526 49.772 2.706 -95.184 0.000 0.3890.1610 5689.915 10.690 43.294 2.463 -112.458 0.000 0.3690.1841 5914.300 9.372 38.304 2.265 -131.396 0.000 0.3520.2093 6026.429 7.940 34.933 2.105 -152.306 0.000 0.3390.2366 6001.153 6.724 33.205 1.993 -175.300 0.000 0.3310.2660 5884.474 5.859 32.616 1.919 -200.219 0.000 0.3290.2973 5702.517 5.231 32.582 1.858 -227.250 0.000 0.3330.3305 5463.822 4.669 32.607 1.782 -257.223 0.000 0.3410.3653 5176.847 4.130 32.569 1.686 -291.960 0.000 0.3530.4015 4856.999 3.615 32.276 1.568 -334.024 0.000 0.368

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Table 52: Aerodynamic shape of the offshore wind turbine blade. Part II.

η Chord Twist Rel. Thick. Abs. Thick. PreBend Sweep Pitch Ax.

[-] [mm] [deg] [%] [mm] [mm] [mm] [%]

0.4387 4520.596 3.087 31.617 1.429 -385.230 0.000 0.3870.4766 4179.754 2.496 30.631 1.280 -447.907 0.000 0.4070.5148 3843.115 1.844 29.434 1.131 -526.715 0.000 0.4270.5529 3519.802 1.161 28.137 0.990 -624.990 0.000 0.4470.5905 3217.817 0.472 26.851 0.864 -743.988 0.000 0.4650.6273 2942.235 -0.197 25.669 0.755 -887.589 0.000 0.4810.6628 2695.442 -0.821 24.673 0.665 -1057.719 0.000 0.4950.6969 2477.555 -1.382 23.910 0.592 -1253.206 0.000 0.5060.7293 2287.107 -1.870 23.364 0.534 -1474.464 0.000 0.5150.7597 2122.247 -2.277 22.993 0.488 -1720.560 0.000 0.5220.7882 1980.543 -2.602 22.797 0.451 -1987.278 0.000 0.5250.8145 1859.127 -2.849 22.749 0.423 -2273.345 0.000 0.5270.8387 1754.622 -3.023 22.667 0.398 -2573.861 0.000 0.5260.8608 1665.039 -3.127 22.527 0.375 -2884.631 0.000 0.5230.8809 1586.462 -3.161 22.346 0.355 -3202.275 0.000 0.5190.8990 1511.861 -3.132 22.141 0.335 -3522.426 0.000 0.5130.9153 1434.823 -3.038 21.927 0.315 -3841.324 0.000 0.5070.9299 1350.534 -2.882 21.720 0.293 -4154.955 0.000 0.4990.9429 1261.203 -2.668 21.532 0.272 -4460.302 0.000 0.4920.9544 1167.110 -2.401 21.370 0.249 -4755.136 0.000 0.4850.9646 1061.193 -2.082 21.240 0.225 -5037.311 0.000 0.4770.9736 957.092 -1.728 21.142 0.202 -5304.152 0.000 0.4700.9816 862.894 -1.348 21.100 0.182 -5554.378 0.000 0.4640.9885 759.375 -0.923 21.100 0.160 -5789.962 0.000 0.4570.9946 539.733 -0.468 21.100 0.113 -6009.213 0.000 0.4521.0000 96.200 -0.037 21.100 0.020 -6206.217 0.000 0.446

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B.2 Airfoil Data

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Table 53: Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-211 21.10% airfoil

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

0 1.00000 -0.00131 50 0.48071 -0.07319 100 0.00727 0.01970 150 0.50089 0.100541 0.98960 -0.00001 51 0.47032 -0.07541 101 0.01380 0.02787 151 0.51109 0.098832 0.97919 0.00123 52 0.45992 -0.07751 102 0.02121 0.03525 152 0.52128 0.097073 0.96877 0.00240 53 0.44948 -0.07948 103 0.02920 0.04198 153 0.53146 0.095264 0.95832 0.00346 54 0.43903 -0.08132 104 0.03759 0.04820 154 0.54163 0.093415 0.94786 0.00438 55 0.42855 -0.08302 105 0.04629 0.05398 155 0.55180 0.091526 0.93738 0.00514 56 0.41805 -0.08457 106 0.05523 0.05936 156 0.56196 0.089607 0.92689 0.00572 57 0.40753 -0.08598 107 0.06436 0.06441 157 0.57212 0.087658 0.91638 0.00614 58 0.39699 -0.08726 108 0.07365 0.06915 158 0.58227 0.085669 0.90586 0.00639 59 0.38644 -0.08839 109 0.08308 0.07360 159 0.59242 0.0836310 0.89534 0.00647 60 0.37587 -0.08937 110 0.09263 0.07778 160 0.60255 0.0815711 0.88481 0.00639 61 0.36530 -0.09021 111 0.10228 0.08171 161 0.61269 0.0794812 0.87428 0.00616 62 0.35471 -0.09089 112 0.11201 0.08541 162 0.62282 0.0773613 0.86374 0.00578 63 0.34412 -0.09143 113 0.12182 0.08888 163 0.63294 0.0752114 0.85321 0.00526 64 0.33352 -0.09182 114 0.13171 0.09214 164 0.64307 0.0730515 0.84269 0.00459 65 0.32292 -0.09206 115 0.14165 0.09518 165 0.65319 0.0708816 0.83217 0.00378 66 0.31232 -0.09214 116 0.15165 0.09803 166 0.66331 0.0687017 0.82165 0.00284 67 0.30172 -0.09207 117 0.16171 0.10068 167 0.67343 0.0665018 0.81115 0.00177 68 0.29112 -0.09186 118 0.17180 0.10314 168 0.68355 0.0643019 0.80066 0.00056 69 0.28053 -0.09150 119 0.18194 0.10541 169 0.69368 0.0620920 0.79017 -0.00078 70 0.26995 -0.09099 120 0.19211 0.10749 170 0.70380 0.0598721 0.77971 -0.00225 71 0.25938 -0.09034 121 0.20232 0.10940 171 0.71393 0.0576622 0.76926 -0.00384 72 0.24883 -0.08955 122 0.21255 0.11113 172 0.72406 0.0554523 0.75882 -0.00554 73 0.23828 -0.08861 123 0.22281 0.11268 173 0.73419 0.0532324 0.74839 -0.00735 74 0.22776 -0.08753 124 0.23309 0.11406 174 0.74432 0.0510325 0.73798 -0.00925 75 0.21725 -0.08630 125 0.24339 0.11526 175 0.75446 0.0488226 0.72759 -0.01126 76 0.20676 -0.08493 126 0.25371 0.11629 176 0.76461 0.0466327 0.71722 -0.01337 77 0.19630 -0.08340 127 0.26404 0.11713 177 0.77476 0.0444528 0.70686 -0.01556 78 0.18586 -0.08172 128 0.27438 0.11781 178 0.78491 0.0422929 0.69651 -0.01785 79 0.17546 -0.07988 129 0.28473 0.11832 179 0.79508 0.0401430 0.68618 -0.02021 80 0.16509 -0.07789 130 0.29508 0.11866 180 0.80525 0.0380031 0.67587 -0.02266 81 0.15475 -0.07574 131 0.30544 0.11885 181 0.81542 0.0358932 0.66558 -0.02518 82 0.14445 -0.07343 132 0.31579 0.11888 182 0.82561 0.0338033 0.65530 -0.02776 83 0.13419 -0.07096 133 0.32615 0.11877 183 0.83580 0.0317234 0.64503 -0.03040 84 0.12398 -0.06833 134 0.33650 0.11850 184 0.84600 0.0296635 0.63477 -0.03308 85 0.11381 -0.06552 135 0.34684 0.11809 185 0.85621 0.0276136 0.62452 -0.03581 86 0.10371 -0.06253 136 0.35717 0.11756 186 0.86642 0.0255737 0.61427 -0.03857 87 0.09366 -0.05935 137 0.36750 0.11692 187 0.87664 0.0235638 0.60403 -0.04135 88 0.08369 -0.05597 138 0.37782 0.11617 188 0.88687 0.0215739 0.59380 -0.04414 89 0.07380 -0.05237 139 0.38813 0.11531 189 0.89711 0.0196040 0.58356 -0.04694 90 0.06400 -0.04854 140 0.39843 0.11435 190 0.90735 0.0176541 0.57332 -0.04973 91 0.05431 -0.04446 141 0.40872 0.11330 191 0.91761 0.0157342 0.56308 -0.05251 92 0.04476 -0.04006 142 0.41900 0.11217 192 0.92787 0.0138343 0.55282 -0.05526 93 0.03540 -0.03530 143 0.42927 0.11096 193 0.93815 0.0119544 0.54256 -0.05799 94 0.02628 -0.03009 144 0.43953 0.10967 194 0.94843 0.0101145 0.53229 -0.06067 95 0.01753 -0.02430 145 0.44978 0.10831 195 0.95872 0.0083046 0.52201 -0.06331 96 0.00941 -0.01767 146 0.46002 0.10688 196 0.96903 0.0065447 0.51171 -0.06590 97 0.00275 -0.00962 147 0.47025 0.10538 197 0.97935 0.0048148 0.50140 -0.06842 98 -0.00000 0.00037 148 0.48047 0.10382 198 0.98968 0.0030849 0.49106 -0.07085 99 0.00225 0.01054 149 0.49069 0.10221 199 1.00000 0.00131

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Table 54: Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-241 24.10% airfoil

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

0 1.00000 -0.00360 50 0.47643 -0.09331 100 0.00510 0.02011 150 0.49739 0.107191 0.98948 -0.00220 51 0.46591 -0.09584 101 0.01052 0.02920 151 0.50765 0.105522 0.97895 -0.00082 52 0.45536 -0.09823 102 0.01705 0.03754 152 0.51792 0.103803 0.96841 0.00050 53 0.44478 -0.10048 103 0.02434 0.04519 153 0.52817 0.102044 0.95784 0.00172 54 0.43417 -0.10259 104 0.03224 0.05221 154 0.53842 0.100235 0.94725 0.00279 55 0.42354 -0.10456 105 0.04056 0.05871 155 0.54866 0.098396 0.93664 0.00368 56 0.41288 -0.10638 106 0.04922 0.06474 156 0.55889 0.096507 0.92600 0.00438 57 0.40219 -0.10804 107 0.05816 0.07034 157 0.56912 0.094588 0.91535 0.00489 58 0.39149 -0.10956 108 0.06731 0.07556 158 0.57934 0.092629 0.90468 0.00519 59 0.38076 -0.11091 109 0.07666 0.08043 159 0.58956 0.0906310 0.89400 0.00528 60 0.37002 -0.11210 110 0.08615 0.08496 160 0.59978 0.0886111 0.88331 0.00517 61 0.35926 -0.11313 111 0.09579 0.08919 161 0.60999 0.0865612 0.87263 0.00486 62 0.34849 -0.11398 112 0.10554 0.09312 162 0.62019 0.0844813 0.86194 0.00437 63 0.33772 -0.11467 113 0.11539 0.09677 163 0.63040 0.0823714 0.85125 0.00371 64 0.32693 -0.11519 114 0.12533 0.10016 164 0.64060 0.0802415 0.84057 0.00287 65 0.31614 -0.11554 115 0.13535 0.10330 165 0.65080 0.0781016 0.82990 0.00187 66 0.30534 -0.11572 116 0.14543 0.10619 166 0.66100 0.0759317 0.81924 0.00069 67 0.29455 -0.11571 117 0.15558 0.10884 167 0.67120 0.0737518 0.80859 -0.00065 68 0.28377 -0.11553 118 0.16577 0.11127 168 0.68139 0.0715619 0.79797 -0.00217 69 0.27299 -0.11516 119 0.17601 0.11348 169 0.69159 0.0693520 0.78736 -0.00387 70 0.26222 -0.11462 120 0.18629 0.11548 170 0.70179 0.0671421 0.77678 -0.00575 71 0.25147 -0.11389 121 0.19660 0.11727 171 0.71199 0.0649122 0.76623 -0.00781 72 0.24074 -0.11298 122 0.20694 0.11886 172 0.72220 0.0626823 0.75570 -0.01003 73 0.23002 -0.11188 123 0.21731 0.12026 173 0.73240 0.0604424 0.74521 -0.01241 74 0.21934 -0.11059 124 0.22769 0.12148 174 0.74261 0.0581925 0.73474 -0.01493 75 0.20868 -0.10909 125 0.23809 0.12252 175 0.75283 0.0559526 0.72431 -0.01758 76 0.19806 -0.10740 126 0.24850 0.12339 176 0.76304 0.0537027 0.71390 -0.02034 77 0.18748 -0.10549 127 0.25891 0.12409 177 0.77326 0.0514628 0.70351 -0.02322 78 0.17694 -0.10338 128 0.26934 0.12464 178 0.78349 0.0492229 0.69315 -0.02620 79 0.16646 -0.10105 129 0.27977 0.12502 179 0.79372 0.0469830 0.68281 -0.02928 80 0.15603 -0.09850 130 0.29020 0.12525 180 0.80396 0.0447431 0.67250 -0.03244 81 0.14566 -0.09572 131 0.30063 0.12534 181 0.81421 0.0425232 0.66221 -0.03567 82 0.13536 -0.09272 132 0.31105 0.12529 182 0.82446 0.0403033 0.65193 -0.03897 83 0.12515 -0.08949 133 0.32147 0.12510 183 0.83472 0.0380834 0.64166 -0.04231 84 0.11501 -0.08601 134 0.33189 0.12479 184 0.84499 0.0358835 0.63141 -0.04569 85 0.10497 -0.08229 135 0.34230 0.12436 185 0.85526 0.0336836 0.62116 -0.04909 86 0.09504 -0.07831 136 0.35270 0.12382 186 0.86554 0.0314937 0.61091 -0.05250 87 0.08522 -0.07408 137 0.36310 0.12316 187 0.87583 0.0293138 0.60066 -0.05592 88 0.07553 -0.06957 138 0.37348 0.12241 188 0.88613 0.0271439 0.59040 -0.05933 89 0.06598 -0.06478 139 0.38386 0.12156 189 0.89644 0.0249940 0.58014 -0.06272 90 0.05661 -0.05968 140 0.39423 0.12062 190 0.90675 0.0228441 0.56986 -0.06608 91 0.04742 -0.05426 141 0.40459 0.11960 191 0.91708 0.0207142 0.55957 -0.06939 92 0.03846 -0.04848 142 0.41493 0.11850 192 0.92741 0.0185943 0.54926 -0.07266 93 0.02980 -0.04228 143 0.42527 0.11732 193 0.93776 0.0164844 0.53893 -0.07586 94 0.02153 -0.03557 144 0.43560 0.11606 194 0.94811 0.0143945 0.52858 -0.07900 95 0.01381 -0.02825 145 0.44592 0.11474 195 0.95848 0.0123046 0.51821 -0.08205 96 0.00708 -0.02004 146 0.45623 0.11335 196 0.96885 0.0102147 0.50780 -0.08502 97 0.00191 -0.01076 147 0.46653 0.11190 197 0.97922 0.0081148 0.49738 -0.08790 98 -0.00002 -0.00034 148 0.47683 0.11039 198 0.98961 0.0060149 0.48692 -0.09066 99 0.00146 0.01016 149 0.48711 0.10882 199 1.00000 0.00391

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Table 55: Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-270 blend 27.00% airfoil

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

0 1.00000 -0.00613 50 0.47744 -0.10899 100 0.00113 0.01076 150 0.48932 0.117041 0.98941 -0.00440 51 0.46697 -0.11173 101 0.00421 0.02103 151 0.49981 0.115302 0.97880 -0.00276 52 0.45645 -0.11433 102 0.00897 0.03063 152 0.51029 0.113513 0.96816 -0.00127 53 0.44591 -0.11680 103 0.01489 0.03956 153 0.52076 0.111684 0.95749 0.00001 54 0.43533 -0.11913 104 0.02168 0.04785 154 0.53122 0.109805 0.94680 0.00107 55 0.42472 -0.12131 105 0.02917 0.05550 155 0.54168 0.107876 0.93608 0.00191 56 0.41408 -0.12334 106 0.03701 0.06280 156 0.55213 0.105917 0.92534 0.00254 57 0.40341 -0.12521 107 0.04526 0.06961 157 0.56257 0.103908 0.91459 0.00293 58 0.39272 -0.12693 108 0.05389 0.07593 158 0.57301 0.101869 0.90383 0.00310 59 0.38201 -0.12848 109 0.06282 0.08182 159 0.58344 0.0997910 0.89306 0.00302 60 0.37127 -0.12987 110 0.07201 0.08729 160 0.59386 0.0976811 0.88230 0.00271 61 0.36051 -0.13108 111 0.08140 0.09239 161 0.60428 0.0955412 0.87154 0.00217 62 0.34973 -0.13211 112 0.09098 0.09713 162 0.61469 0.0933713 0.86079 0.00141 63 0.33894 -0.13297 113 0.10072 0.10153 163 0.62510 0.0911714 0.85006 0.00045 64 0.32814 -0.13364 114 0.11059 0.10559 164 0.63551 0.0889515 0.83934 -0.00070 65 0.31733 -0.13413 115 0.12059 0.10935 165 0.64591 0.0867016 0.82864 -0.00204 66 0.30651 -0.13444 116 0.13069 0.11280 166 0.65631 0.0844317 0.81796 -0.00357 67 0.29569 -0.13455 117 0.14089 0.11597 167 0.66670 0.0821418 0.80731 -0.00529 68 0.28488 -0.13447 118 0.15116 0.11885 168 0.67709 0.0798319 0.79669 -0.00720 69 0.27406 -0.13418 119 0.16150 0.12146 169 0.68748 0.0775120 0.78610 -0.00930 70 0.26326 -0.13369 120 0.17191 0.12382 170 0.69787 0.0751621 0.77555 -0.01160 71 0.25247 -0.13300 121 0.18236 0.12592 171 0.70825 0.0728022 0.76504 -0.01409 72 0.24169 -0.13209 122 0.19286 0.12778 172 0.71863 0.0704323 0.75457 -0.01674 73 0.23094 -0.13097 123 0.20339 0.12941 173 0.72902 0.0680424 0.74414 -0.01955 74 0.22022 -0.12962 124 0.21395 0.13082 174 0.73940 0.0656525 0.73374 -0.02249 75 0.20953 -0.12804 125 0.22454 0.13202 175 0.74978 0.0632426 0.72338 -0.02556 76 0.19888 -0.12623 126 0.23515 0.13302 176 0.76016 0.0608427 0.71305 -0.02874 77 0.18828 -0.12417 127 0.24577 0.13384 177 0.77055 0.0584228 0.70275 -0.03204 78 0.17773 -0.12186 128 0.25640 0.13448 178 0.78093 0.0560029 0.69248 -0.03543 79 0.16724 -0.11929 129 0.26703 0.13495 179 0.79132 0.0535930 0.68224 -0.03891 80 0.15682 -0.11646 130 0.27768 0.13525 180 0.80171 0.0511731 0.67203 -0.04246 81 0.14649 -0.11336 131 0.28832 0.13540 181 0.81211 0.0487532 0.66183 -0.04608 82 0.13624 -0.10999 132 0.29896 0.13539 182 0.82250 0.0463333 0.65165 -0.04975 83 0.12609 -0.10635 133 0.30960 0.13525 183 0.83290 0.0439134 0.64149 -0.05346 84 0.11605 -0.10241 134 0.32024 0.13497 184 0.84330 0.0415035 0.63133 -0.05719 85 0.10613 -0.09819 135 0.33087 0.13456 185 0.85371 0.0391036 0.62118 -0.06094 86 0.09634 -0.09367 136 0.34150 0.13404 186 0.86412 0.0367037 0.61102 -0.06469 87 0.08670 -0.08885 137 0.35212 0.13340 187 0.87454 0.0343238 0.60086 -0.06844 88 0.07723 -0.08372 138 0.36273 0.13265 188 0.88496 0.0319439 0.59070 -0.07216 89 0.06794 -0.07827 139 0.37333 0.13180 189 0.89539 0.0295840 0.58052 -0.07586 90 0.05888 -0.07247 140 0.38392 0.13086 190 0.90582 0.0272241 0.57033 -0.07952 91 0.05004 -0.06633 141 0.39450 0.12982 191 0.91627 0.0248842 0.56012 -0.08312 92 0.04141 -0.05990 142 0.40508 0.12870 192 0.92671 0.0225643 0.54988 -0.08666 93 0.03310 -0.05308 143 0.41564 0.12749 193 0.93717 0.0202644 0.53963 -0.09013 94 0.02518 -0.04580 144 0.42619 0.12620 194 0.94763 0.0179745 0.52934 -0.09352 95 0.01779 -0.03800 145 0.43674 0.12485 195 0.95810 0.0156946 0.51902 -0.09682 96 0.01108 -0.02961 146 0.44727 0.12342 196 0.96857 0.0134147 0.50868 -0.10003 97 0.00548 -0.02045 147 0.45780 0.12192 197 0.97905 0.0111248 0.49830 -0.10313 98 0.00141 -0.01052 148 0.46832 0.12035 198 0.98952 0.0088249 0.48789 -0.10612 99 -0.00002 0.00010 149 0.47882 0.11873 199 1.00000 0.00652

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IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (102)

Table 56: Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-301 30.10% airfoil

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

0 1.00000 -0.00891 50 0.47212 -0.12493 100 0.00087 0.01104 150 0.48498 0.128771 0.98934 -0.00673 51 0.46149 -0.12782 101 0.00332 0.02164 151 0.49556 0.126902 0.97863 -0.00473 52 0.45083 -0.13058 102 0.00716 0.03181 152 0.50613 0.124963 0.96787 -0.00306 53 0.44012 -0.13319 103 0.01213 0.04147 153 0.51669 0.122984 0.95705 -0.00172 54 0.42939 -0.13566 104 0.01801 0.05061 154 0.52725 0.120965 0.94619 -0.00071 55 0.41861 -0.13797 105 0.02463 0.05921 155 0.53779 0.118896 0.93531 0.00003 56 0.40781 -0.14012 106 0.03188 0.06729 156 0.54833 0.116797 0.92440 0.00049 57 0.39697 -0.14211 107 0.03963 0.07487 157 0.55887 0.114658 0.91348 0.00067 58 0.38611 -0.14392 108 0.04781 0.08199 158 0.56939 0.112479 0.90256 0.00059 59 0.37522 -0.14557 109 0.05635 0.08866 159 0.57991 0.1102510 0.89164 0.00023 60 0.36431 -0.14703 110 0.06521 0.09489 160 0.59043 0.1080011 0.88072 -0.00040 61 0.35337 -0.14831 111 0.07434 0.10071 161 0.60093 0.1057212 0.86982 -0.00129 62 0.34241 -0.14940 112 0.08371 0.10614 162 0.61144 0.1034113 0.85894 -0.00242 63 0.33144 -0.15030 113 0.09328 0.11117 163 0.62193 0.1010714 0.84808 -0.00378 64 0.32046 -0.15100 114 0.10304 0.11584 164 0.63243 0.0987015 0.83724 -0.00536 65 0.30946 -0.15150 115 0.11296 0.12013 165 0.64292 0.0963116 0.82644 -0.00715 66 0.29846 -0.15180 116 0.12303 0.12408 166 0.65340 0.0938917 0.81566 -0.00914 67 0.28746 -0.15189 117 0.13321 0.12768 167 0.66388 0.0914518 0.80492 -0.01133 68 0.27646 -0.15176 118 0.14350 0.13096 168 0.67436 0.0889819 0.79422 -0.01370 69 0.26547 -0.15140 119 0.15389 0.13392 169 0.68483 0.0864920 0.78355 -0.01627 70 0.25449 -0.15083 120 0.16435 0.13658 170 0.69531 0.0839821 0.77294 -0.01903 71 0.24352 -0.15002 121 0.17488 0.13894 171 0.70578 0.0814622 0.76236 -0.02197 72 0.23258 -0.14897 122 0.18547 0.14102 172 0.71624 0.0789123 0.75183 -0.02506 73 0.22167 -0.14767 123 0.19610 0.14282 173 0.72671 0.0763524 0.74133 -0.02829 74 0.21079 -0.14612 124 0.20677 0.14437 174 0.73717 0.0737725 0.73087 -0.03164 75 0.19996 -0.14431 125 0.21747 0.14567 175 0.74764 0.0711826 0.72045 -0.03511 76 0.18918 -0.14223 126 0.22819 0.14674 176 0.75810 0.0685827 0.71006 -0.03869 77 0.17845 -0.13987 127 0.23893 0.14760 177 0.76857 0.0659728 0.69971 -0.04237 78 0.16780 -0.13723 128 0.24969 0.14825 178 0.77904 0.0633529 0.68938 -0.04613 79 0.15723 -0.13428 129 0.26044 0.14872 179 0.78951 0.0607330 0.67908 -0.04998 80 0.14676 -0.13104 130 0.27121 0.14900 180 0.79998 0.0581131 0.66880 -0.05388 81 0.13638 -0.12749 131 0.28197 0.14911 181 0.81045 0.0554832 0.65854 -0.05784 82 0.12613 -0.12362 132 0.29273 0.14906 182 0.82093 0.0528433 0.64828 -0.06183 83 0.11600 -0.11943 133 0.30349 0.14885 183 0.83141 0.0502134 0.63804 -0.06585 84 0.10602 -0.11491 134 0.31425 0.14850 184 0.84189 0.0475835 0.62780 -0.06988 85 0.09621 -0.11005 135 0.32499 0.14801 185 0.85238 0.0449536 0.61756 -0.07392 86 0.08657 -0.10485 136 0.33573 0.14741 186 0.86288 0.0423337 0.60732 -0.07795 87 0.07714 -0.09930 137 0.34646 0.14668 187 0.87338 0.0397238 0.59707 -0.08195 88 0.06793 -0.09340 138 0.35718 0.14584 188 0.88389 0.0371239 0.58680 -0.08593 89 0.05898 -0.08713 139 0.36789 0.14489 189 0.89440 0.0345340 0.57651 -0.08987 90 0.05030 -0.08048 140 0.37859 0.14384 190 0.90493 0.0319541 0.56621 -0.09375 91 0.04196 -0.07343 141 0.38928 0.14270 191 0.91546 0.0293942 0.55588 -0.09757 92 0.03399 -0.06596 142 0.39996 0.14146 192 0.92600 0.0268543 0.54553 -0.10133 93 0.02646 -0.05805 143 0.41062 0.14013 193 0.93655 0.0243444 0.53514 -0.10500 94 0.01949 -0.04966 144 0.42128 0.13872 194 0.94711 0.0218445 0.52472 -0.10859 95 0.01321 -0.04074 145 0.43192 0.13724 195 0.95768 0.0193646 0.51428 -0.11208 96 0.00782 -0.03126 146 0.44255 0.13568 196 0.96826 0.0168947 0.50379 -0.11546 97 0.00362 -0.02120 147 0.45318 0.13405 197 0.97884 0.0144048 0.49327 -0.11874 98 0.00091 -0.01066 148 0.46379 0.13236 198 0.98942 0.0119049 0.48272 -0.12190 99 -0.00001 0.00019 149 0.47439 0.13060 199 1.00000 0.00937

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Table 57: Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-330blend 33.00% airfoil

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

0 1.00000 -0.01163 50 0.46688 -0.13658 100 0.00080 0.01181 150 0.47845 0.142451 0.98932 -0.00879 51 0.45612 -0.13961 101 0.00262 0.02270 151 0.48917 0.140322 0.97854 -0.00631 52 0.44533 -0.14250 102 0.00513 0.03345 152 0.49988 0.138153 0.96765 -0.00435 53 0.43449 -0.14524 103 0.00875 0.04387 153 0.51059 0.135934 0.95668 -0.00289 54 0.42361 -0.14782 104 0.01345 0.05385 154 0.52128 0.133665 0.94565 -0.00186 55 0.41270 -0.15022 105 0.01893 0.06342 155 0.53196 0.131356 0.93459 -0.00118 56 0.40175 -0.15246 106 0.02508 0.07257 156 0.54264 0.129007 0.92351 -0.00081 57 0.39076 -0.15452 107 0.03185 0.08126 157 0.55331 0.126618 0.91243 -0.00074 58 0.37975 -0.15641 108 0.03918 0.08948 158 0.56397 0.124199 0.90134 -0.00098 59 0.36871 -0.15811 109 0.04700 0.09723 159 0.57462 0.1217410 0.89025 -0.00151 60 0.35764 -0.15963 110 0.05525 0.10451 160 0.58527 0.1192511 0.87918 -0.00234 61 0.34654 -0.16095 111 0.06389 0.11133 161 0.59591 0.1167312 0.86814 -0.00346 62 0.33543 -0.16207 112 0.07287 0.11767 162 0.60655 0.1141913 0.85712 -0.00485 63 0.32430 -0.16300 113 0.08216 0.12355 163 0.61718 0.1116214 0.84613 -0.00651 64 0.31315 -0.16372 114 0.09172 0.12898 164 0.62781 0.1090315 0.83518 -0.00840 65 0.30200 -0.16423 115 0.10151 0.13396 165 0.63843 0.1064116 0.82426 -0.01052 66 0.29084 -0.16452 116 0.11151 0.13852 166 0.64905 0.1037717 0.81339 -0.01286 67 0.27967 -0.16459 117 0.12167 0.14266 167 0.65967 0.1011018 0.80255 -0.01539 68 0.26851 -0.16443 118 0.13199 0.14641 168 0.67028 0.0984219 0.79176 -0.01811 69 0.25736 -0.16403 119 0.14243 0.14979 169 0.68089 0.0957220 0.78102 -0.02103 70 0.24622 -0.16339 120 0.15298 0.15281 170 0.69149 0.0930021 0.77032 -0.02413 71 0.23510 -0.16251 121 0.16362 0.15548 171 0.70210 0.0902722 0.75968 -0.02740 72 0.22401 -0.16137 122 0.17434 0.15780 172 0.71270 0.0875223 0.74908 -0.03082 73 0.21294 -0.15998 123 0.18512 0.15981 173 0.72331 0.0847624 0.73852 -0.03439 74 0.20192 -0.15831 124 0.19595 0.16151 174 0.73391 0.0819825 0.72800 -0.03807 75 0.19094 -0.15638 125 0.20681 0.16293 175 0.74451 0.0792026 0.71752 -0.04187 76 0.18002 -0.15417 126 0.21771 0.16407 176 0.75511 0.0764027 0.70707 -0.04577 77 0.16916 -0.15167 127 0.22863 0.16496 177 0.76571 0.0736028 0.69666 -0.04976 78 0.15839 -0.14886 128 0.23956 0.16563 178 0.77632 0.0707929 0.68627 -0.05383 79 0.14770 -0.14574 129 0.25050 0.16607 179 0.78692 0.0679730 0.67590 -0.05796 80 0.13711 -0.14229 130 0.26144 0.16631 180 0.79753 0.0651531 0.66556 -0.06214 81 0.12665 -0.13851 131 0.27239 0.16636 181 0.80814 0.0623332 0.65522 -0.06635 82 0.11632 -0.13438 132 0.28333 0.16622 182 0.81875 0.0595033 0.64489 -0.07059 83 0.10614 -0.12989 133 0.29427 0.16591 183 0.82936 0.0566834 0.63457 -0.07484 84 0.09614 -0.12502 134 0.30520 0.16545 184 0.83998 0.0538535 0.62424 -0.07909 85 0.08636 -0.11975 135 0.31612 0.16483 185 0.85060 0.0510336 0.61391 -0.08333 86 0.07682 -0.11406 136 0.32704 0.16408 186 0.86123 0.0482237 0.60357 -0.08755 87 0.06756 -0.10792 137 0.33794 0.16320 187 0.87187 0.0454138 0.59322 -0.09175 88 0.05862 -0.10134 138 0.34883 0.16219 188 0.88251 0.0426239 0.58285 -0.09592 89 0.05003 -0.09431 139 0.35970 0.16106 189 0.89316 0.0398340 0.57246 -0.10003 90 0.04185 -0.08681 140 0.37057 0.15981 190 0.90381 0.0370541 0.56205 -0.10408 91 0.03414 -0.07884 141 0.38141 0.15847 191 0.91447 0.0342842 0.55161 -0.10807 92 0.02699 -0.07036 142 0.39225 0.15702 192 0.92514 0.0315443 0.54114 -0.11198 93 0.02048 -0.06139 143 0.40307 0.15548 193 0.93583 0.0288344 0.53064 -0.11580 94 0.01465 -0.05197 144 0.41388 0.15385 194 0.94652 0.0261245 0.52010 -0.11953 95 0.00959 -0.04212 145 0.42467 0.15213 195 0.95721 0.0234246 0.50953 -0.12317 96 0.00557 -0.03181 146 0.43546 0.15034 196 0.96791 0.0207147 0.49893 -0.12669 97 0.00270 -0.02113 147 0.44622 0.14847 197 0.97861 0.0179848 0.48828 -0.13011 98 0.00080 -0.01023 148 0.45698 0.14653 198 0.98930 0.0152249 0.47760 -0.13341 99 -0.00001 0.00079 149 0.46772 0.14452 199 1.00000 0.01245

101

IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (104)

Table 58: Airfoil shape - FFA-W3-360 36.00% airfoil

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

0 1.00000 -0.01393 50 0.46236 -0.14904 100 0.00082 0.01320 150 0.47312 0.158631 0.98922 -0.01082 51 0.45147 -0.15213 101 0.00229 0.02435 151 0.48398 0.156292 0.97834 -0.00809 52 0.44054 -0.15508 102 0.00392 0.03544 152 0.49483 0.153893 0.96731 -0.00598 53 0.42957 -0.15785 103 0.00652 0.04630 153 0.50567 0.151444 0.95618 -0.00448 54 0.41856 -0.16045 104 0.01032 0.05685 154 0.51650 0.148935 0.94499 -0.00351 55 0.40750 -0.16287 105 0.01487 0.06709 155 0.52731 0.146376 0.93377 -0.00294 56 0.39640 -0.16510 106 0.02005 0.07700 156 0.53812 0.143777 0.92253 -0.00273 57 0.38527 -0.16715 107 0.02593 0.08652 157 0.54891 0.141138 0.91128 -0.00287 58 0.37411 -0.16901 108 0.03245 0.09562 158 0.55970 0.138459 0.90004 -0.00335 59 0.36292 -0.17067 109 0.03955 0.10426 159 0.57048 0.1357310 0.88882 -0.00416 60 0.35170 -0.17214 110 0.04717 0.11244 160 0.58125 0.1329711 0.87762 -0.00530 61 0.34046 -0.17340 111 0.05528 0.12013 161 0.59201 0.1301912 0.86646 -0.00676 62 0.32919 -0.17446 112 0.06382 0.12733 162 0.60277 0.1273813 0.85534 -0.00851 63 0.31791 -0.17530 113 0.07277 0.13402 163 0.61352 0.1245414 0.84426 -0.01055 64 0.30662 -0.17593 114 0.08206 0.14021 164 0.62427 0.1216715 0.83323 -0.01285 65 0.29532 -0.17633 115 0.09165 0.14593 165 0.63501 0.1187816 0.82225 -0.01539 66 0.28401 -0.17651 116 0.10151 0.15116 166 0.64574 0.1158717 0.81132 -0.01815 67 0.27270 -0.17644 117 0.11160 0.15593 167 0.65647 0.1129418 0.80043 -0.02109 68 0.26140 -0.17613 118 0.12188 0.16027 168 0.66720 0.1100019 0.78960 -0.02423 69 0.25011 -0.17557 119 0.13232 0.16419 169 0.67793 0.1070320 0.77882 -0.02754 70 0.23884 -0.17476 120 0.14290 0.16771 170 0.68865 0.1040621 0.76808 -0.03101 71 0.22759 -0.17368 121 0.15360 0.17083 171 0.69937 0.1010622 0.75740 -0.03464 72 0.21637 -0.17234 122 0.16440 0.17357 172 0.71009 0.0980623 0.74676 -0.03842 73 0.20519 -0.17072 123 0.17529 0.17595 173 0.72081 0.0950424 0.73617 -0.04234 74 0.19406 -0.16883 124 0.18624 0.17799 174 0.73153 0.0920125 0.72562 -0.04637 75 0.18297 -0.16665 125 0.19725 0.17970 175 0.74224 0.0889626 0.71512 -0.05051 76 0.17196 -0.16418 126 0.20830 0.18110 176 0.75296 0.0859127 0.70464 -0.05473 77 0.16101 -0.16142 127 0.21938 0.18221 177 0.76367 0.0828628 0.69419 -0.05903 78 0.15015 -0.15833 128 0.23048 0.18306 178 0.77439 0.0797929 0.68377 -0.06339 79 0.13940 -0.15491 129 0.24159 0.18366 179 0.78510 0.0767230 0.67336 -0.06780 80 0.12877 -0.15115 130 0.25272 0.18403 180 0.79582 0.0736431 0.66297 -0.07223 81 0.11827 -0.14702 131 0.26384 0.18418 181 0.80654 0.0705632 0.65258 -0.07669 82 0.10792 -0.14253 132 0.27497 0.18412 182 0.81726 0.0674733 0.64219 -0.08115 83 0.09776 -0.13765 133 0.28609 0.18386 183 0.82798 0.0643934 0.63180 -0.08561 84 0.08781 -0.13235 134 0.29720 0.18343 184 0.83871 0.0613035 0.62140 -0.09005 85 0.07812 -0.12660 135 0.30831 0.18283 185 0.84943 0.0582136 0.61099 -0.09447 86 0.06873 -0.12038 136 0.31940 0.18207 186 0.86017 0.0551337 0.60056 -0.09885 87 0.05969 -0.11366 137 0.33048 0.18115 187 0.87090 0.0520538 0.59011 -0.10318 88 0.05105 -0.10644 138 0.34155 0.18008 188 0.88164 0.0489739 0.57964 -0.10747 89 0.04286 -0.09872 139 0.35260 0.17888 189 0.89239 0.0458940 0.56914 -0.11169 90 0.03516 -0.09050 140 0.36364 0.17756 190 0.90314 0.0428241 0.55862 -0.11585 91 0.02806 -0.08177 141 0.37466 0.17611 191 0.91389 0.0397642 0.54807 -0.11993 92 0.02166 -0.07252 142 0.38567 0.17455 192 0.92466 0.0367243 0.53748 -0.12392 93 0.01604 -0.06279 143 0.39665 0.17288 193 0.93543 0.0336944 0.52686 -0.12783 94 0.01113 -0.05267 144 0.40762 0.17110 194 0.94620 0.0306545 0.51620 -0.13164 95 0.00700 -0.04221 145 0.41858 0.16923 195 0.95697 0.0276046 0.50551 -0.13535 96 0.00397 -0.03142 146 0.42952 0.16727 196 0.96774 0.0245247 0.49478 -0.13895 97 0.00207 -0.02035 147 0.44044 0.16522 197 0.97850 0.0214048 0.48401 -0.14244 98 0.00069 -0.00916 148 0.45135 0.16310 198 0.98926 0.0182349 0.47321 -0.14580 99 -0.00001 0.00205 149 0.46224 0.16090 199 1.00000 0.01503

102

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Table 59: Airfoil shape - Interpolated48 48.00% airfoil

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

0 1.00000 -0.01857 50 0.44979 -0.20346 100 0.00055 0.01465 150 0.45796 0.215691 0.98893 -0.01432 51 0.43850 -0.20748 101 0.00169 0.02646 151 0.46926 0.212582 0.97767 -0.01060 52 0.42712 -0.21126 102 0.00286 0.03826 152 0.48054 0.209383 0.96615 -0.00772 53 0.41567 -0.21480 103 0.00430 0.05000 153 0.49179 0.206104 0.95445 -0.00573 54 0.40414 -0.21809 104 0.00649 0.06160 154 0.50301 0.202735 0.94263 -0.00448 55 0.39254 -0.22111 105 0.00950 0.07305 155 0.51422 0.199296 0.93077 -0.00380 56 0.38087 -0.22387 106 0.01307 0.08433 156 0.52540 0.195777 0.91888 -0.00365 57 0.36915 -0.22636 107 0.01711 0.09544 157 0.53657 0.192208 0.90699 -0.00402 58 0.35736 -0.22856 108 0.02165 0.10634 158 0.54771 0.188579 0.89513 -0.00488 59 0.34553 -0.23048 109 0.02675 0.11699 159 0.55884 0.1848810 0.88330 -0.00624 60 0.33366 -0.23209 110 0.03238 0.12737 160 0.56996 0.1811511 0.87154 -0.00808 61 0.32174 -0.23339 111 0.03853 0.13745 161 0.58106 0.1773712 0.85985 -0.01036 62 0.30980 -0.23437 112 0.04518 0.14719 162 0.59214 0.1735413 0.84824 -0.01305 63 0.29784 -0.23502 113 0.05232 0.15658 163 0.60322 0.1696814 0.83673 -0.01613 64 0.28586 -0.23533 114 0.05995 0.16557 164 0.61428 0.1657815 0.82530 -0.01955 65 0.27389 -0.23528 115 0.06806 0.17413 165 0.62534 0.1618516 0.81398 -0.02327 66 0.26192 -0.23487 116 0.07662 0.18223 166 0.63638 0.1578817 0.80274 -0.02727 67 0.24997 -0.23409 117 0.08560 0.18986 167 0.64742 0.1538918 0.79158 -0.03152 68 0.23805 -0.23292 118 0.09496 0.19700 168 0.65845 0.1498719 0.78052 -0.03600 69 0.22618 -0.23137 119 0.10469 0.20363 169 0.66947 0.1458320 0.76955 -0.04070 70 0.21437 -0.22943 120 0.11474 0.20975 170 0.68048 0.1417721 0.75866 -0.04561 71 0.20264 -0.22709 121 0.12509 0.21536 171 0.69150 0.1376822 0.74786 -0.05070 72 0.19099 -0.22434 122 0.13568 0.22048 172 0.70250 0.1335823 0.73713 -0.05597 73 0.17945 -0.22119 123 0.14651 0.22508 173 0.71351 0.1294624 0.72648 -0.06138 74 0.16804 -0.21764 124 0.15753 0.22917 174 0.72450 0.1253225 0.71589 -0.06693 75 0.15676 -0.21367 125 0.16873 0.23275 175 0.73550 0.1211726 0.70536 -0.07259 76 0.14565 -0.20926 126 0.18007 0.23585 176 0.74649 0.1170127 0.69487 -0.07834 77 0.13473 -0.20441 127 0.19152 0.23847 177 0.75749 0.1128328 0.68442 -0.08416 78 0.12402 -0.19911 128 0.20307 0.24064 178 0.76848 0.1086429 0.67400 -0.09003 79 0.11354 -0.19337 129 0.21468 0.24237 179 0.77947 0.1044430 0.66360 -0.09595 80 0.10333 -0.18718 130 0.22635 0.24370 180 0.79046 0.1002431 0.65321 -0.10189 81 0.09341 -0.18054 131 0.23805 0.24466 181 0.80146 0.0960332 0.64282 -0.10784 82 0.08383 -0.17342 132 0.24977 0.24527 182 0.81245 0.0918133 0.63243 -0.11378 83 0.07463 -0.16582 133 0.26151 0.24555 183 0.82345 0.0875934 0.62203 -0.11971 84 0.06584 -0.15776 134 0.27324 0.24552 184 0.83445 0.0833735 0.61161 -0.12561 85 0.05751 -0.14923 135 0.28497 0.24520 185 0.84545 0.0791436 0.60116 -0.13147 86 0.04966 -0.14025 136 0.29669 0.24461 186 0.85646 0.0749237 0.59068 -0.13727 87 0.04231 -0.13088 137 0.30838 0.24377 187 0.86748 0.0707138 0.58016 -0.14300 88 0.03546 -0.12113 138 0.32006 0.24269 188 0.87850 0.0664939 0.56961 -0.14867 89 0.02919 -0.11100 139 0.33172 0.24138 189 0.88952 0.0622840 0.55901 -0.15426 90 0.02354 -0.10053 140 0.34334 0.23987 190 0.90056 0.0580841 0.54836 -0.15975 91 0.01852 -0.08974 141 0.35494 0.23815 191 0.91160 0.0538942 0.53766 -0.16515 92 0.01411 -0.07870 142 0.36651 0.23625 192 0.92265 0.0497143 0.52690 -0.17043 93 0.01024 -0.06745 143 0.37805 0.23419 193 0.93372 0.0455644 0.51608 -0.17558 94 0.00694 -0.05603 144 0.38956 0.23196 194 0.94479 0.0414045 0.50519 -0.18061 95 0.00440 -0.04443 145 0.40103 0.22957 195 0.95586 0.0372246 0.49425 -0.18550 96 0.00267 -0.03269 146 0.41248 0.22705 196 0.96692 0.0330147 0.48324 -0.19024 97 0.00149 -0.02086 147 0.42389 0.22439 197 0.97796 0.0287548 0.47216 -0.19483 98 0.00044 -0.00901 148 0.43528 0.22160 198 0.98899 0.0244249 0.46101 -0.19924 99 -0.00001 0.00283 149 0.44663 0.21870 199 1.00000 0.02004

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Table 60: Airfoil shape - Interpolated72 72.00% airfoil

ID x y ID x y ID x y ID x y

[-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]

0 0.9993 -0.02908 50 0.4336 -0.3550 100 0.0012 0.0286 150 0.4716 0.35901 0.9872 -0.03423 51 0.4203 -0.3563 101 0.0023 0.0417 151 0.4844 0.35712 0.9752 -0.03944 52 0.4070 -0.3571 102 0.0038 0.0547 152 0.4972 0.35503 0.9636 -0.04561 53 0.3937 -0.3576 103 0.0058 0.0677 153 0.5099 0.35254 0.9523 -0.05236 54 0.3804 -0.3576 104 0.0084 0.0805 154 0.5226 0.34995 0.9412 -0.05946 55 0.3671 -0.3572 105 0.0115 0.0932 155 0.5352 0.34696 0.9303 -0.06687 56 0.3538 -0.3564 106 0.0150 0.1058 156 0.5478 0.34387 0.9196 -0.07454 57 0.3406 -0.3552 107 0.0189 0.1183 157 0.5603 0.34048 0.9091 -0.08243 58 0.3274 -0.3536 108 0.0232 0.1306 158 0.5727 0.33679 0.8987 -0.09056 59 0.3142 -0.3516 109 0.0280 0.1428 159 0.5851 0.332810 0.8885 -0.09895 60 0.3012 -0.3492 110 0.0333 0.1547 160 0.5974 0.328711 0.8784 -0.10745 61 0.2882 -0.3464 111 0.0390 0.1665 161 0.6096 0.324412 0.8684 -0.11603 62 0.2753 -0.3431 112 0.0451 0.1780 162 0.6217 0.319913 0.8584 -0.12464 63 0.2625 -0.3394 113 0.0516 0.1893 163 0.6338 0.315114 0.8483 -0.13327 64 0.2499 -0.3354 114 0.0585 0.2003 164 0.6458 0.310215 0.8383 -0.14189 65 0.2373 -0.3309 115 0.0659 0.2111 165 0.6577 0.305016 0.8283 -0.15049 66 0.2250 -0.3259 116 0.0736 0.2216 166 0.6695 0.299617 0.8182 -0.15906 67 0.2128 -0.3206 117 0.0818 0.2317 167 0.6812 0.294118 0.8081 -0.16760 68 0.2008 -0.3149 118 0.0903 0.2415 168 0.6929 0.288319 0.7979 -0.17608 69 0.1890 -0.3088 119 0.0992 0.2510 169 0.7044 0.282420 0.7877 -0.18450 70 0.1775 -0.3023 120 0.1085 0.2602 170 0.7159 0.276321 0.7774 -0.19284 71 0.1661 -0.2955 121 0.1181 0.2689 171 0.7272 0.270022 0.7671 -0.20110 72 0.1550 -0.2882 122 0.1280 0.2774 172 0.7385 0.263523 0.7566 -0.20926 73 0.1441 -0.2806 123 0.1382 0.2854 173 0.7496 0.256824 0.7461 -0.21731 74 0.1335 -0.2726 124 0.1488 0.2930 174 0.7607 0.250025 0.7354 -0.22523 75 0.1233 -0.2642 125 0.1596 0.3003 175 0.7716 0.243026 0.7247 -0.23302 76 0.1133 -0.2555 126 0.1706 0.3071 176 0.7825 0.235827 0.7139 -0.24067 77 0.1036 -0.2464 127 0.1819 0.3135 177 0.7932 0.228528 0.7029 -0.24817 78 0.0943 -0.2370 128 0.1934 0.3195 178 0.8039 0.221029 0.6918 -0.25550 79 0.0854 -0.2272 129 0.2051 0.3251 179 0.8144 0.213330 0.6806 -0.26265 80 0.0768 -0.2171 130 0.2170 0.3304 180 0.8248 0.205531 0.6693 -0.26963 81 0.0687 -0.2067 131 0.2290 0.3352 181 0.8351 0.197532 0.6579 -0.27641 82 0.0609 -0.1960 132 0.2412 0.3396 182 0.8453 0.189433 0.6464 -0.28298 83 0.0536 -0.1850 133 0.2536 0.3436 183 0.8553 0.181134 0.6347 -0.28934 84 0.0467 -0.1737 134 0.2660 0.3473 184 0.8653 0.172735 0.6229 -0.29548 85 0.0403 -0.1621 135 0.2786 0.3505 185 0.8751 0.164136 0.6110 -0.30139 86 0.0343 -0.1504 136 0.2912 0.3535 186 0.8848 0.155437 0.5990 -0.30706 87 0.0288 -0.1384 137 0.3039 0.3560 187 0.8944 0.146538 0.5868 -0.31248 88 0.0237 -0.1262 138 0.3167 0.3582 188 0.9039 0.137539 0.5746 -0.31764 89 0.0192 -0.1138 139 0.3295 0.3601 189 0.9132 0.128440 0.5622 -0.32253 90 0.0151 -0.1013 140 0.3424 0.3616 190 0.9224 0.119141 0.5497 -0.32713 91 0.0115 -0.0886 141 0.3553 0.3628 191 0.9315 0.109742 0.5372 -0.33147 92 0.0084 -0.0758 142 0.3682 0.3636 192 0.9405 0.100243 0.5245 -0.33558 93 0.0057 -0.0629 143 0.3812 0.3642 193 0.9494 0.090644 0.5118 -0.33941 94 0.0037 -0.0499 144 0.3941 0.3644 194 0.9581 0.080845 0.4989 -0.34291 95 0.0022 -0.0368 145 0.4071 0.3642 195 0.9667 0.070946 0.4860 -0.34607 96 0.0010 -0.0237 146 0.4200 0.3638 196 0.9751 0.060947 0.4730 -0.34888 97 0.0003 -0.0106 147 0.4329 0.3630 197 0.9834 0.050748 0.4599 -0.35133 98 0.0000 0.0024 148 0.4459 0.3619 198 0.9915 0.040449 0.4468 -0.35340 99 0.0004 0.0155 149 0.4587 0.3606 199 0.9993 0.0299

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Table 61: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-211 (Re=1.00e+07)

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.00 0.00000 0.02464 0.00000 -40.29 -0.70655 0.62488 0.20491 44.43 0.96801 0.73293 -0.25784-177.71 0.05403 0.02534 0.09143 -36.14 -0.73188 0.51941 0.15416 48.57 0.91904 0.84130 -0.28035-175.43 0.10805 0.02742 0.18286 -32.00 -0.75635 0.41871 0.10137 52.71 0.86109 0.94773 -0.30163-173.14 0.16208 0.03088 0.27429 -28.00 -0.85636 0.28691 0.06527 56.86 0.79357 1.05001 -0.32226-170.86 0.21610 0.03570 0.36571 -24.00 -1.18292 0.13960 0.01647 61.00 0.71651 1.14600 -0.34247-168.57 0.27013 0.05599 0.39192 -20.00 -1.23596 0.08345 -0.00352 65.14 0.63044 1.23371 -0.36135-166.29 0.32415 0.08143 0.37898 -18.00 -1.22536 0.06509 -0.00672 69.29 0.53632 1.31129 -0.38024-164.00 0.37818 0.11112 0.36605 -16.00 -1.20476 0.04888 -0.00881 73.43 0.43546 1.37714 -0.39704-161.71 0.43220 0.14485 0.35312 -14.00 -1.18332 0.03417 -0.01101 77.57 0.32947 1.42988 -0.41341-159.43 0.48623 0.18242 0.34768 -12.00 -1.10093 0.02132 -0.02269 81.71 0.22019 1.46842 -0.42844-157.14 0.54025 0.22359 0.36471 -10.00 -0.88209 0.01386 -0.04397 85.86 0.10965 1.49196 -0.44159-154.86 0.59428 0.26810 0.38175 -8.00 -0.62981 0.01075 -0.05756 90.00 0.00000 1.50000 -0.45474-152.57 0.64830 0.31566 0.39878 -6.00 -0.37670 0.00882 -0.06747 94.14 -0.07675 1.49196 -0.46149-150.29 0.70233 0.36597 0.41581 -4.00 -0.12177 0.00702 -0.07680 98.29 -0.15413 1.46842 -0.46824-148.00 0.75635 0.41871 0.41955 -2.00 0.12810 0.00663 -0.08283 102.43 -0.23063 1.42988 -0.47101-143.86 0.73188 0.51941 0.42287 -1.00 0.25192 0.00664 -0.08534 106.57 -0.30482 1.37714 -0.47096-139.71 0.70655 0.62488 0.42632 0.00 0.37535 0.00670 -0.08777 110.71 -0.37542 1.31129 -0.46998-135.57 0.67760 0.73293 0.43163 1.00 0.49828 0.00681 -0.09011 114.86 -0.44131 1.23371 -0.46448-131.43 0.64333 0.84130 0.43694 2.00 0.62052 0.00698 -0.09234 119.00 -0.50156 1.14600 -0.45897-127.29 0.60277 0.94773 0.44389 3.00 0.74200 0.00720 -0.09447 123.14 -0.55550 1.05001 -0.45171-123.14 0.55550 1.05001 0.45171 4.00 0.86238 0.00751 -0.09646 127.29 -0.60277 0.94773 -0.44389-119.00 0.50156 1.14600 0.45897 5.00 0.98114 0.00796 -0.09828 131.43 -0.64333 0.84130 -0.43694-114.86 0.44131 1.23371 0.46448 6.00 1.09662 0.00872 -0.09977 135.57 -0.67760 0.73293 -0.43163-110.71 0.37542 1.31129 0.46998 7.00 1.20904 0.00968 -0.10095 139.71 -0.70655 0.62488 -0.42632-106.57 0.30482 1.37714 0.47096 8.00 1.31680 0.01097 -0.10163 143.86 -0.73188 0.51941 -0.42287-102.43 0.23063 1.42988 0.47101 9.00 1.42209 0.01227 -0.10207 148.00 -0.75635 0.41871 -0.41955-98.29 0.15413 1.46842 0.46824 10.00 1.52361 0.01369 -0.10213 150.29 -0.70233 0.36597 -0.41581-94.14 0.07675 1.49196 0.46149 11.00 1.61988 0.01529 -0.10174 152.57 -0.64830 0.31566 -0.39878-90.00 0.00000 1.50000 0.45474 12.00 1.70937 0.01717 -0.10087 154.86 -0.59428 0.26810 -0.38175-85.86 -0.07675 1.49196 0.44026 13.00 1.78681 0.01974 -0.09936 157.14 -0.54025 0.22359 -0.36471-81.71 -0.15413 1.46842 0.42578 14.00 1.84290 0.02368 -0.09720 159.43 -0.48623 0.18242 -0.34768-77.57 -0.23063 1.42988 0.40821 15.00 1.85313 0.03094 -0.09410 161.71 -0.43220 0.14485 -0.37026-73.43 -0.30482 1.37714 0.38846 16.00 1.80951 0.04303 -0.09144 164.00 -0.37818 0.11112 -0.40605-69.29 -0.37542 1.31129 0.36815 18.00 1.66033 0.07730 -0.09242 166.29 -0.32415 0.08143 -0.44184-65.14 -0.44131 1.23371 0.34519 20.00 1.56152 0.11202 -0.09871 168.57 -0.27013 0.05599 -0.47763-61.00 -0.50156 1.14600 0.32223 24.00 1.43327 0.18408 -0.11770 170.86 -0.21610 0.03570 -0.45714-56.86 -0.55550 1.05001 0.29864 28.00 1.29062 0.27589 -0.14566 173.14 -0.16208 0.03088 -0.34286-52.71 -0.60277 0.94773 0.27486 32.00 1.08050 0.41871 -0.18266 175.43 -0.10805 0.02742 -0.22857-48.57 -0.64333 0.84130 0.25128 36.14 1.04554 0.51941 -0.20913 177.71 -0.05403 0.02534 -0.11429-44.43 -0.67760 0.73293 0.22810 40.29 1.00936 0.62488 -0.23534 180.00 0.00000 0.02464 0.00000

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Table 62: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-241 (Re=1.00e+07)

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.00 0.0000 0.0117 0.0000 -40.29 -0.7451 0.6031 0.2070 44.43 1.0125 0.7126 -0.2599-177.71 0.0581 0.0124 0.0914 -36.14 -0.7792 0.4964 0.1456 48.57 0.9547 0.8224 -0.2821-175.43 0.1163 0.0146 0.1828 -32.00 -0.8144 0.3946 0.0813 52.71 0.8893 0.9305 -0.3032-173.14 0.1745 0.0181 0.2742 -28.00 -1.0778 0.2225 0.0459 56.86 0.8154 1.0344 -0.3236-170.86 0.2327 0.0230 0.3657 -24.00 -1.1269 0.1515 0.0190 61.00 0.7329 1.1322 -0.3438-168.57 0.2908 0.0292 0.3956 -20.00 -1.1448 0.0969 0.0006 65.14 0.6423 1.2217 -0.3629-166.29 0.3490 0.0538 0.3887 -18.00 -1.1279 0.0774 -0.0034 69.29 0.5445 1.3012 -0.3820-164.00 0.4072 0.0837 0.3818 -16.00 -1.0939 0.0612 -0.0058 73.43 0.4406 1.3690 -0.3994-161.71 0.4654 0.1178 0.3749 -14.00 -1.0596 0.0466 -0.0065 77.57 0.3323 1.4237 -0.4164-159.43 0.5236 0.1558 0.3740 -12.00 -1.0312 0.0330 -0.0075 81.71 0.2214 1.4643 -0.4323-157.14 0.5817 0.1974 0.3914 -10.00 -0.9370 0.0202 -0.0224 85.86 0.1099 1.4899 -0.4464-154.86 0.6399 0.2423 0.4088 -8.00 -0.6738 0.0116 -0.0558 90.00 0.0000 1.5000 -0.4605-152.57 0.6981 0.2904 0.4262 -6.00 -0.4039 0.0091 -0.0715 94.14 -0.0769 1.4899 -0.4673-150.29 0.7563 0.3412 0.4436 -4.00 -0.1422 0.0083 -0.0812 98.29 -0.1550 1.4643 -0.4740-148.00 0.8144 0.3946 0.4453 -2.00 0.1158 0.0081 -0.0889 102.43 -0.2326 1.4237 -0.4769-143.86 0.7792 0.4964 0.4443 -1.00 0.2438 0.0080 -0.0923 106.57 -0.3084 1.3690 -0.4770-139.71 0.7451 0.6031 0.4436 0.00 0.3711 0.0081 -0.0955 110.71 -0.3811 1.3012 -0.4762-135.57 0.7088 0.7126 0.4460 1.00 0.4976 0.0082 -0.0985 114.86 -0.4496 1.2217 -0.4713-131.43 0.6683 0.8224 0.4485 2.00 0.6233 0.0084 -0.1013 119.00 -0.5130 1.1322 -0.4663-127.29 0.6225 0.9305 0.4537 3.00 0.7479 0.0086 -0.1040 123.14 -0.5708 1.0344 -0.4602-123.14 0.5708 1.0344 0.4602 4.00 0.8713 0.0090 -0.1064 127.29 -0.6225 0.9305 -0.4537-119.00 0.5130 1.1322 0.4663 5.00 0.9932 0.0094 -0.1086 131.43 -0.6683 0.8224 -0.4485-114.86 0.4496 1.2217 0.4713 6.00 1.1132 0.0099 -0.1105 135.57 -0.7088 0.7126 -0.4460-110.71 0.3811 1.3012 0.4762 7.00 1.2303 0.0107 -0.1121 139.71 -0.7451 0.6031 -0.4436-106.57 0.3084 1.3690 0.4770 8.00 1.3449 0.0115 -0.1133 143.86 -0.7792 0.4964 -0.4443-102.43 0.2326 1.4237 0.4769 9.00 1.4540 0.0126 -0.1139 148.00 -0.8144 0.3946 -0.4453-98.29 0.1550 1.4643 0.4740 10.00 1.5591 0.0139 -0.1140 150.29 -0.7563 0.3412 -0.4436-94.14 0.0769 1.4899 0.4673 11.00 1.6577 0.0154 -0.1133 152.57 -0.6981 0.2904 -0.4262-90.00 0.0000 1.5000 0.4605 12.00 1.7483 0.0172 -0.1118 154.86 -0.6399 0.2423 -0.4088-85.86 -0.0769 1.4899 0.4450 13.00 1.8266 0.0196 -0.1093 157.14 -0.5817 0.1974 -0.3914-81.71 -0.1550 1.4643 0.4296 14.00 1.8883 0.0229 -0.1060 159.43 -0.5236 0.1558 -0.3740-77.57 -0.2326 1.4237 0.4112 15.00 1.9257 0.0279 -0.1023 161.71 -0.4654 0.1178 -0.3920-73.43 -0.3084 1.3690 0.3908 16.00 1.9272 0.0360 -0.0988 164.00 -0.4072 0.0837 -0.4218-69.29 -0.3811 1.3012 0.3698 18.00 1.8005 0.0653 -0.0949 166.29 -0.3490 0.0538 -0.4516-65.14 -0.4496 1.2217 0.3466 20.00 1.6308 0.1045 -0.0999 168.57 -0.2908 0.0292 -0.4813-61.00 -0.5130 1.1322 0.3233 24.00 1.4334 0.1914 -0.1258 170.86 -0.2327 0.0230 -0.4571-56.86 -0.5708 1.0344 0.2998 28.00 1.2880 0.2862 -0.1545 173.14 -0.1745 0.0181 -0.3428-52.71 -0.6225 0.9305 0.2761 32.00 1.1635 0.3946 -0.1839 175.43 -0.1163 0.0146 -0.2285-48.57 -0.6683 0.8224 0.2528 36.14 1.1132 0.4964 -0.2109 177.71 -0.0581 0.0124 -0.1142-44.43 -0.7088 0.7126 0.2299 40.29 1.0644 0.6031 -0.2376 180.00 0.0000 0.0117 0.0000

106

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Table 63: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-270blend (Re=1.00e+07)

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.00 0.0000 0.0154 0.0000 -40.29 -0.7681 0.5681 0.2044 44.43 1.0291 0.6699 -0.2550-177.71 0.0621 0.0161 0.0914 -36.14 -0.8166 0.4688 0.1395 48.57 0.9585 0.7721 -0.2748-175.43 0.1242 0.0180 0.1828 -32.00 -0.8698 0.3740 0.0713 52.71 0.8832 0.8725 -0.2934-173.14 0.1863 0.0213 0.2742 -28.00 -1.0983 0.2188 0.0440 56.86 0.8022 0.9692 -0.3114-170.86 0.2485 0.0258 0.3657 -24.00 -1.0833 0.1598 0.0216 61.00 0.7151 1.0600 -0.3292-168.57 0.3106 0.0328 0.3987 -20.00 -1.0699 0.1074 0.0042 65.14 0.6220 1.1431 -0.3464-166.29 0.3727 0.0568 0.3967 -18.00 -1.0545 0.0869 -0.0003 69.29 0.5236 1.2168 -0.3635-164.00 0.4349 0.0847 0.3947 -16.00 -1.0343 0.0684 -0.0033 73.43 0.4210 1.2796 -0.3794-161.71 0.4970 0.1164 0.3926 -14.00 -1.0836 0.0473 -0.0028 77.57 0.3156 1.3303 -0.3951-159.43 0.5591 0.1517 0.3954 -12.00 -1.0948 0.0308 -0.0055 81.71 0.2091 1.3676 -0.4098-157.14 0.6212 0.1904 0.4125 -10.00 -0.9266 0.0198 -0.0295 85.86 0.1032 1.3910 -0.4230-154.86 0.6834 0.2323 0.4296 -8.00 -0.6967 0.0143 -0.0482 90.00 0.0000 1.4000 -0.4363-152.57 0.7455 0.2770 0.4467 -6.00 -0.4362 0.0115 -0.0648 94.14 -0.0722 1.3910 -0.4430-150.29 0.8076 0.3244 0.4638 -4.00 -0.1625 0.0102 -0.0791 98.29 -0.1463 1.3676 -0.4497-148.00 0.8698 0.3740 0.4618 -2.00 0.1070 0.0097 -0.0904 102.43 -0.2209 1.3303 -0.4529-143.86 0.8166 0.4688 0.4533 -1.00 0.2399 0.0096 -0.0951 106.57 -0.2947 1.2796 -0.4537-139.71 0.7681 0.5681 0.4452 0.00 0.3715 0.0096 -0.0995 110.71 -0.3665 1.2168 -0.4538-135.57 0.7204 0.6699 0.4423 1.00 0.5021 0.0097 -0.1035 114.86 -0.4354 1.1431 -0.4506-131.43 0.6709 0.7721 0.4395 2.00 0.6313 0.0099 -0.1072 119.00 -0.5005 1.0600 -0.4473-127.29 0.6182 0.8725 0.4407 3.00 0.7595 0.0101 -0.1106 123.14 -0.5615 0.9692 -0.4440-123.14 0.5615 0.9692 0.4440 4.00 0.8863 0.0104 -0.1138 127.29 -0.6182 0.8725 -0.4407-119.00 0.5005 1.0600 0.4473 5.00 1.0117 0.0108 -0.1167 131.43 -0.6709 0.7721 -0.4395-114.86 0.4354 1.1431 0.4506 6.00 1.1343 0.0114 -0.1192 135.57 -0.7204 0.6699 -0.4423-110.71 0.3665 1.2168 0.4538 7.00 1.2553 0.0119 -0.1214 139.71 -0.7681 0.5681 -0.4452-106.57 0.2947 1.2796 0.4537 8.00 1.3737 0.0126 -0.1232 143.86 -0.8166 0.4688 -0.4533-102.43 0.2209 1.3303 0.4529 9.00 1.4884 0.0135 -0.1246 148.00 -0.8698 0.3740 -0.4618-98.29 0.1463 1.3676 0.4497 10.00 1.5978 0.0146 -0.1252 150.29 -0.8076 0.3244 -0.4638-94.14 0.0722 1.3910 0.4430 11.00 1.7000 0.0159 -0.1250 152.57 -0.7455 0.2770 -0.4467-90.00 0.0000 1.4000 0.4363 12.00 1.7919 0.0177 -0.1237 154.86 -0.6834 0.2323 -0.4296-85.86 -0.0722 1.3910 0.4218 13.00 1.8678 0.0203 -0.1209 157.14 -0.6212 0.1904 -0.4125-81.71 -0.1463 1.3676 0.4073 14.00 1.9268 0.0238 -0.1172 159.43 -0.5591 0.1517 -0.3954-77.57 -0.2209 1.3303 0.3902 15.00 1.9090 0.0323 -0.1093 161.71 -0.4970 0.1164 -0.4098-73.43 -0.2947 1.2796 0.3712 16.00 1.8854 0.0425 -0.1052 164.00 -0.4349 0.0847 -0.4347-69.29 -0.3665 1.2168 0.3519 18.00 1.7210 0.0767 -0.1029 166.29 -0.3727 0.0568 -0.4595-65.14 -0.4354 1.1431 0.3306 20.00 1.5473 0.1191 -0.1101 168.57 -0.3106 0.0328 -0.4844-61.00 -0.5005 1.0600 0.3094 24.00 1.3717 0.2018 -0.1343 170.86 -0.2485 0.0258 -0.4571-56.86 -0.5615 0.9692 0.2881 28.00 1.3361 0.2798 -0.1577 173.14 -0.1863 0.0213 -0.3428-52.71 -0.6182 0.8725 0.2668 32.00 1.2425 0.3740 -0.1843 175.43 -0.1242 0.0180 -0.2285-48.57 -0.6709 0.7721 0.2457 36.14 1.1665 0.4688 -0.2100 177.71 -0.0621 0.0161 -0.1142-44.43 -0.7204 0.6699 0.2251 40.29 1.0973 0.5681 -0.2353 180.00 0.0000 0.0154 0.0000

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IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (110)

Table 64: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-301 (Re=1.00e+07)

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.00 0.0000 0.0245 0.0000 -40.29 -0.7818 0.5325 0.2018 44.43 1.0349 0.6267 -0.2501-177.71 0.0650 0.0251 0.0914 -36.14 -0.8425 0.4406 0.1364 48.57 0.9536 0.7213 -0.2674-175.43 0.1301 0.0269 0.1828 -32.00 -0.9111 0.3528 0.0676 52.71 0.8704 0.8142 -0.2836-173.14 0.1952 0.0299 0.2742 -28.00 -1.1034 0.2172 0.0423 56.86 0.7838 0.9035 -0.2992-170.86 0.2603 0.0340 0.3657 -24.00 -1.1073 0.1562 0.0202 61.00 0.6932 0.9874 -0.3147-168.57 0.3254 0.0393 0.4008 -20.00 -1.1181 0.1033 0.0040 65.14 0.5987 1.0642 -0.3298-166.29 0.3904 0.0591 0.4022 -18.00 -1.1233 0.0818 0.0001 69.29 0.5008 1.1322 -0.3450-164.00 0.4555 0.0849 0.4035 -16.00 -1.1186 0.0633 -0.0016 73.43 0.4002 1.1901 -0.3594-161.71 0.5206 0.1143 0.4049 -14.00 -1.1162 0.0471 -0.0012 77.57 0.2983 1.2366 -0.3736-159.43 0.5857 0.1470 0.4101 -12.00 -1.0958 0.0328 -0.0046 81.71 0.1964 1.2709 -0.3870-157.14 0.6508 0.1829 0.4267 -10.00 -0.9176 0.0235 -0.0249 85.86 0.0964 1.2921 -0.3992-154.86 0.7159 0.2216 0.4434 -8.00 -0.6931 0.0179 -0.0430 90.00 0.0000 1.3000 -0.4114-152.57 0.7809 0.2630 0.4601 -6.00 -0.4539 0.0143 -0.0586 94.14 -0.0675 1.2921 -0.4179-150.29 0.8460 0.3069 0.4768 -4.00 -0.1777 0.0124 -0.0760 98.29 -0.1375 1.2709 -0.4244-148.00 0.9111 0.3528 0.4716 -2.00 0.1048 0.0116 -0.0912 102.43 -0.2088 1.2366 -0.4278-143.86 0.8425 0.4406 0.4565 -1.00 0.2438 0.0114 -0.0976 106.57 -0.2801 1.1901 -0.4291-139.71 0.7818 0.5325 0.4420 0.00 0.3811 0.0113 -0.1034 110.71 -0.3505 1.1322 -0.4299-135.57 0.7244 0.6267 0.4345 1.00 0.5166 0.0114 -0.1086 114.86 -0.4191 1.0642 -0.4281-131.43 0.6675 0.7213 0.4270 2.00 0.6504 0.0115 -0.1133 119.00 -0.4853 0.9874 -0.4263-127.29 0.6092 0.8142 0.4248 3.00 0.7826 0.0117 -0.1176 123.14 -0.5486 0.9035 -0.4254-123.14 0.5486 0.9035 0.4254 4.00 0.9132 0.0120 -0.1215 127.29 -0.6092 0.8142 -0.4248-119.00 0.4853 0.9874 0.4263 5.00 1.0420 0.0123 -0.1251 131.43 -0.6675 0.7213 -0.4270-114.86 0.4191 1.0642 0.4281 6.00 1.1687 0.0128 -0.1282 135.57 -0.7244 0.6267 -0.4345-110.71 0.3505 1.1322 0.4299 7.00 1.2929 0.0133 -0.1310 139.71 -0.7818 0.5325 -0.4420-106.57 0.2801 1.1901 0.4291 8.00 1.4139 0.0140 -0.1333 143.86 -0.8425 0.4406 -0.4565-102.43 0.2088 1.2366 0.4278 9.00 1.5308 0.0148 -0.1350 148.00 -0.9111 0.3528 -0.4716-98.29 0.1375 1.2709 0.4244 10.00 1.6420 0.0159 -0.1359 150.29 -0.8460 0.3069 -0.4768-94.14 0.0675 1.2921 0.4179 11.00 1.7456 0.0172 -0.1360 152.57 -0.7809 0.2630 -0.4601-90.00 0.0000 1.3000 0.4114 12.00 1.8388 0.0190 -0.1351 154.86 -0.7159 0.2216 -0.4434-85.86 -0.0675 1.2921 0.3980 13.00 1.9176 0.0216 -0.1332 157.14 -0.6508 0.1829 -0.4267-81.71 -0.1375 1.2709 0.3846 14.00 1.9741 0.0257 -0.1302 159.43 -0.5857 0.1470 -0.4101-77.57 -0.2088 1.2366 0.3689 15.00 1.9991 0.0322 -0.1264 161.71 -0.5206 0.1143 -0.4220-73.43 -0.2801 1.1901 0.3515 16.00 1.9937 0.0415 -0.1226 164.00 -0.4555 0.0849 -0.4435-69.29 -0.3505 1.1322 0.3339 18.00 1.9172 0.0673 -0.1167 166.29 -0.3904 0.0591 -0.4650-65.14 -0.4191 1.0642 0.3147 20.00 1.7368 0.1052 -0.1165 168.57 -0.3254 0.0393 -0.4865-61.00 -0.4853 0.9874 0.2955 24.00 1.4732 0.1922 -0.1379 170.86 -0.2603 0.0340 -0.4571-56.86 -0.5486 0.9035 0.2765 28.00 1.3601 0.2744 -0.1624 173.14 -0.1952 0.0299 -0.3428-52.71 -0.6092 0.8142 0.2575 32.00 1.3016 0.3528 -0.1846 175.43 -0.1301 0.0269 -0.2285-48.57 -0.6675 0.7213 0.2387 36.14 1.2036 0.4406 -0.2089 177.71 -0.0650 0.0251 -0.1142-44.43 -0.7244 0.6267 0.2202 40.29 1.1169 0.5325 -0.2327 180.00 0.0000 0.0245 0.0000

108

IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (111)

Table 65: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-330blend (Re=1.00e+07)

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.00 0.0000 0.0316 0.0000 -40.29 -0.8238 0.5311 0.2078 44.43 1.0835 0.6254 -0.2573-177.71 0.0696 0.0322 0.0914 -36.14 -0.8941 0.4391 0.1373 48.57 0.9925 0.7201 -0.2735-175.43 0.1392 0.0340 0.1828 -32.00 -0.9744 0.3513 0.0628 52.71 0.9011 0.8131 -0.2886-173.14 0.2088 0.0370 0.2742 -28.00 -1.1630 0.2064 0.0390 56.86 0.8076 0.9025 -0.3031-170.86 0.2784 0.0411 0.3657 -24.00 -1.1489 0.1500 0.0185 61.00 0.7111 0.9865 -0.3175-168.57 0.3480 0.0463 0.4030 -20.00 -1.0945 0.1060 0.0044 65.14 0.6117 1.0634 -0.3319-166.29 0.4176 0.0573 0.4080 -18.00 -1.0580 0.0873 -0.0006 69.29 0.5097 1.1316 -0.3463-164.00 0.4872 0.0831 0.4129 -16.00 -1.0228 0.0705 -0.0034 73.43 0.4058 1.1896 -0.3601-161.71 0.5568 0.1125 0.4178 -14.00 -0.9981 0.0547 -0.0040 77.57 0.3014 1.2362 -0.3738-159.43 0.6264 0.1453 0.4258 -12.00 -0.9851 0.0405 -0.0027 81.71 0.1978 1.2706 -0.3868-157.14 0.6960 0.1812 0.4430 -10.00 -0.8958 0.0292 -0.0119 85.86 0.0967 1.2920 -0.3987-154.86 0.7656 0.2200 0.4601 -8.00 -0.6753 0.0220 -0.0345 90.00 0.0000 1.3000 -0.4106-152.57 0.8352 0.2614 0.4773 -6.00 -0.4324 0.0173 -0.0546 94.14 -0.0677 1.2920 -0.4168-150.29 0.9048 0.3053 0.4944 -4.00 -0.1588 0.0147 -0.0742 98.29 -0.1385 1.2706 -0.4230-148.00 0.9744 0.3513 0.4874 -2.00 0.1345 0.0136 -0.0927 102.43 -0.2110 1.2362 -0.4262-143.86 0.8941 0.4391 0.4683 -1.00 0.2801 0.0133 -0.1007 106.57 -0.2841 1.1896 -0.4274-139.71 0.8238 0.5311 0.4499 0.00 0.4238 0.0133 -0.1080 110.71 -0.3568 1.1316 -0.4281-135.57 0.7584 0.6254 0.4398 1.00 0.5651 0.0133 -0.1145 114.86 -0.4282 1.0634 -0.4267-131.43 0.6947 0.7201 0.4297 2.00 0.7041 0.0134 -0.1202 119.00 -0.4978 0.9865 -0.4252-127.29 0.6307 0.8131 0.4258 3.00 0.8407 0.0136 -0.1254 123.14 -0.5653 0.9025 -0.4253-123.14 0.5653 0.9025 0.4253 4.00 0.9750 0.0139 -0.1301 127.29 -0.6307 0.8131 -0.4258-119.00 0.4978 0.9865 0.4252 5.00 1.1068 0.0143 -0.1342 131.43 -0.6947 0.7201 -0.4297-114.86 0.4282 1.0634 0.4267 6.00 1.2360 0.0148 -0.1379 135.57 -0.7584 0.6254 -0.4398-110.71 0.3568 1.1316 0.4281 7.00 1.3622 0.0154 -0.1410 139.71 -0.8238 0.5311 -0.4499-106.57 0.2841 1.1896 0.4274 8.00 1.4842 0.0162 -0.1436 143.86 -0.8941 0.4391 -0.4683-102.43 0.2110 1.2362 0.4262 9.00 1.6009 0.0171 -0.1454 148.00 -0.9744 0.3513 -0.4874-98.29 0.1385 1.2706 0.4230 10.00 1.7101 0.0184 -0.1463 150.29 -0.9048 0.3053 -0.4944-94.14 0.0677 1.2920 0.4168 11.00 1.8095 0.0201 -0.1463 152.57 -0.8352 0.2614 -0.4773-90.00 0.0000 1.3000 0.4106 12.00 1.8947 0.0225 -0.1454 154.86 -0.7656 0.2200 -0.4601-85.86 -0.0677 1.2920 0.3975 13.00 1.9569 0.0267 -0.1437 157.14 -0.6960 0.1812 -0.4430-81.71 -0.1385 1.2706 0.3844 14.00 1.9857 0.0338 -0.1418 159.43 -0.6264 0.1453 -0.4258-77.57 -0.2110 1.2362 0.3690 15.00 1.9926 0.0433 -0.1400 161.71 -0.5568 0.1125 -0.4350-73.43 -0.2841 1.1896 0.3521 16.00 1.9961 0.0535 -0.1382 164.00 -0.4872 0.0831 -0.4529-69.29 -0.3568 1.1316 0.3349 18.00 1.9639 0.0770 -0.1335 166.29 -0.4176 0.0573 -0.4708-65.14 -0.4282 1.0634 0.3163 20.00 1.8117 0.1116 -0.1313 168.57 -0.3480 0.0463 -0.4888-61.00 -0.4978 0.9865 0.2977 24.00 1.5607 0.1910 -0.1466 170.86 -0.2784 0.0411 -0.4571-56.86 -0.5653 0.9025 0.2794 28.00 1.4679 0.2719 -0.1724 173.14 -0.2088 0.0370 -0.3428-52.71 -0.6307 0.8131 0.2612 32.00 1.3920 0.3513 -0.1941 175.43 -0.1392 0.0340 -0.2285-48.57 -0.6947 0.7201 0.2432 36.14 1.2773 0.4391 -0.2179 177.71 -0.0696 0.0322 -0.1142-44.43 -0.7584 0.6254 0.2255 40.29 1.1768 0.5311 -0.2411 180.00 0.0000 0.0316 0.0000

109

IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (112)

Table 66: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - FFA-W3-360 (Re=1.00e+07)

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.00 0.0000 0.0371 0.0000 -40.29 -0.8440 0.5337 0.2109 44.43 1.1069 0.6279 -0.2613-177.71 0.0717 0.0377 0.0914 -36.14 -0.9189 0.4419 0.1352 48.57 1.0112 0.7223 -0.2764-175.43 0.1435 0.0395 0.1828 -32.00 -1.0049 0.3542 0.0551 52.71 0.9159 0.8152 -0.2906-173.14 0.2153 0.0424 0.2742 -28.00 -1.1130 0.2049 0.0321 56.86 0.8190 0.9044 -0.3042-170.86 0.2871 0.0465 0.3657 -24.00 -1.0542 0.1543 0.0126 61.00 0.7198 0.9882 -0.3178-168.57 0.3589 0.0517 0.4031 -20.00 -0.9824 0.1096 -0.0028 65.14 0.6180 1.0649 -0.3315-166.29 0.4306 0.0606 0.4081 -18.00 -0.9417 0.0924 -0.0074 69.29 0.5140 1.1328 -0.3452-164.00 0.5024 0.0865 0.4131 -16.00 -0.8933 0.0759 -0.0110 73.43 0.4086 1.1906 -0.3584-161.71 0.5742 0.1158 0.4181 -14.00 -0.8547 0.0605 -0.0125 77.57 0.3029 1.2370 -0.3716-159.43 0.6460 0.1485 0.4262 -12.00 -0.8234 0.0464 -0.0117 81.71 0.1985 1.2711 -0.3840-157.14 0.7178 0.1843 0.4437 -10.00 -0.7954 0.0344 -0.0108 85.86 0.0969 1.2922 -0.3954-154.86 0.7896 0.2231 0.4611 -8.00 -0.6365 0.0254 -0.0276 90.00 0.0000 1.3000 -0.4069-152.57 0.8613 0.2645 0.4785 -6.00 -0.3909 0.0199 -0.0510 94.14 -0.0678 1.2922 -0.4127-150.29 0.9331 0.3083 0.4960 -4.00 -0.1307 0.0165 -0.0714 98.29 -0.1389 1.2711 -0.4186-148.00 1.0049 0.3542 0.4883 -2.00 0.1617 0.0150 -0.0917 102.43 -0.2120 1.2370 -0.4216-143.86 0.9189 0.4419 0.4678 -1.00 0.3112 0.0147 -0.1011 106.57 -0.2860 1.1906 -0.4225-139.71 0.8440 0.5337 0.4480 0.00 0.4595 0.0146 -0.1098 110.71 -0.3598 1.1328 -0.4231-135.57 0.7748 0.6279 0.4369 1.00 0.6056 0.0146 -0.1177 114.86 -0.4326 1.0649 -0.4216-131.43 0.7079 0.7223 0.4259 2.00 0.7486 0.0148 -0.1247 119.00 -0.5038 0.9882 -0.4202-127.29 0.6411 0.8152 0.4215 3.00 0.8886 0.0150 -0.1309 123.14 -0.5733 0.9044 -0.4205-123.14 0.5733 0.9044 0.4205 4.00 1.0254 0.0154 -0.1364 127.29 -0.6411 0.8152 -0.4215-119.00 0.5038 0.9882 0.4202 5.00 1.1587 0.0159 -0.1413 131.43 -0.7079 0.7223 -0.4259-114.86 0.4326 1.0649 0.4216 6.00 1.2882 0.0165 -0.1454 135.57 -0.7748 0.6279 -0.4369-110.71 0.3598 1.1328 0.4231 7.00 1.4128 0.0173 -0.1487 139.71 -0.8440 0.5337 -0.4480-106.57 0.2860 1.1906 0.4225 8.00 1.5309 0.0183 -0.1511 143.86 -0.9189 0.4419 -0.4678-102.43 0.2120 1.2370 0.4216 9.00 1.6406 0.0196 -0.1526 148.00 -1.0049 0.3542 -0.4883-98.29 0.1389 1.2711 0.4186 10.00 1.7392 0.0215 -0.1531 150.29 -0.9331 0.3083 -0.4960-94.14 0.0678 1.2922 0.4127 11.00 1.8197 0.0244 -0.1525 152.57 -0.8613 0.2645 -0.4785-90.00 0.0000 1.3000 0.4069 12.00 1.8706 0.0296 -0.1512 154.86 -0.7896 0.2231 -0.4611-85.86 -0.0678 1.2922 0.3942 13.00 1.8922 0.0377 -0.1496 157.14 -0.7178 0.1843 -0.4437-81.71 -0.1389 1.2711 0.3816 14.00 1.8791 0.0482 -0.1456 159.43 -0.6460 0.1485 -0.4262-77.57 -0.2120 1.2370 0.3667 15.00 1.8811 0.0583 -0.1435 161.71 -0.5742 0.1158 -0.4353-73.43 -0.2860 1.1906 0.3503 16.00 1.8635 0.0699 -0.1409 164.00 -0.5024 0.0865 -0.4531-69.29 -0.3598 1.1328 0.3336 18.00 1.7332 0.1016 -0.1371 166.29 -0.4306 0.0606 -0.4710-65.14 -0.4326 1.0649 0.3156 20.00 1.5935 0.1391 -0.1408 168.57 -0.3589 0.0517 -0.4888-61.00 -0.5038 0.9882 0.2975 24.00 1.4670 0.2100 -0.1569 170.86 -0.2871 0.0465 -0.4571-56.86 -0.5733 0.9044 0.2798 28.00 1.4483 0.2820 -0.1797 173.14 -0.2153 0.0424 -0.3428-52.71 -0.6411 0.8152 0.2623 32.00 1.4356 0.3542 -0.2014 175.43 -0.1435 0.0395 -0.2285-48.57 -0.7079 0.7223 0.2449 36.14 1.3128 0.4419 -0.2240 177.71 -0.0717 0.0377 -0.1142-44.43 -0.7748 0.6279 0.2279 40.29 1.2058 0.5337 -0.2461 180.00 0.0000 0.0371 0.0000

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Table 67: Airfoil aerodynamic coefficients - Cylinder

α CL CD CM α CL CD CM α CL CD CM

[deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-] [deg] [-] [-] [-]

-180.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -24.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 60.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-175.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -22.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 65.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-170.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -20.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 70.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-165.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -18.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 75.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-160.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -16.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 80.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-155.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -14.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 85.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-150.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -12.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 90.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-145.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -10.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 95.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-140.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -8.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 100.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-135.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -6.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 105.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-130.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -4.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 110.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-125.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 -2.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 115.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-120.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 120.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-115.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 2.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 125.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-110.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 4.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 130.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-105.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 6.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 135.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-100.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 8.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 140.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-95.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 10.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 145.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-90.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 12.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 150.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-85.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 14.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 155.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-80.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 16.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 160.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-75.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 18.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 165.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-70.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 20.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 170.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-65.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 22.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 175.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0-60.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 24.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0 180.00 0.0 0.60000 0.0

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B.3 Blade Structure

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Table 68: Beam structural properties of the blade in HAWC2 format

s dm xcg ycg rix riy xsh ysh E G0.00e+00 2.33e+03 -1.21e-02 2.51e-04 1.59e+00 1.60e+00 -1.39e-02 2.55e-04 3.81e+10 5.40e+091.93e+00 1.75e+03 -3.52e-02 1.41e-03 1.55e+00 1.63e+00 -5.59e-02 2.28e-03 3.50e+10 5.21e+092.90e+00 1.31e+03 -6.65e-02 2.16e-03 1.36e+00 1.71e+00 -1.09e-01 9.22e-03 2.06e+10 3.45e+093.87e+00 1.31e+03 -5.63e-02 3.80e-03 1.35e+00 1.67e+00 -8.96e-02 1.34e-02 1.80e+10 3.06e+094.83e+00 1.31e+03 -6.87e-02 6.98e-03 1.36e+00 1.59e+00 -1.29e-01 1.49e-02 1.64e+10 2.85e+095.80e+00 1.26e+03 -2.90e-02 1.45e-02 1.35e+00 1.53e+00 -6.65e-02 2.83e-02 1.63e+10 2.82e+096.77e+00 1.21e+03 1.20e-02 2.19e-02 1.34e+00 1.47e+00 1.08e-02 4.25e-02 1.60e+10 2.77e+097.74e+00 1.15e+03 4.83e-02 2.80e-02 1.33e+00 1.41e+00 8.95e-02 5.46e-02 1.57e+10 2.71e+098.70e+00 1.09e+03 8.55e-02 3.30e-02 1.30e+00 1.36e+00 1.82e-01 6.51e-02 1.54e+10 2.65e+099.67e+00 1.04e+03 1.25e-01 3.79e-02 1.23e+00 1.36e+00 2.98e-01 7.50e-02 1.52e+10 2.61e+091.16e+01 9.71e+02 2.02e-01 4.99e-02 1.07e+00 1.38e+00 5.68e-01 1.02e-01 1.49e+10 2.50e+091.35e+01 9.19e+02 2.73e-01 5.32e-02 9.70e-01 1.42e+00 7.91e-01 1.11e-01 1.42e+10 2.35e+091.54e+01 8.75e+02 3.31e-01 5.13e-02 9.02e-01 1.47e+00 9.13e-01 1.01e-01 1.34e+10 2.19e+091.74e+01 8.29e+02 3.77e-01 5.02e-02 8.48e-01 1.52e+00 1.01e+00 8.98e-02 1.23e+10 2.02e+091.93e+01 7.74e+02 4.16e-01 4.51e-02 8.02e-01 1.54e+00 1.07e+00 7.93e-02 1.16e+10 1.89e+092.12e+01 7.16e+02 4.54e-01 3.63e-02 7.67e-01 1.53e+00 1.13e+00 6.94e-02 1.10e+10 1.79e+092.32e+01 6.66e+02 4.83e-01 2.95e-02 7.49e-01 1.51e+00 1.16e+00 6.36e-02 1.05e+10 1.69e+092.51e+01 6.30e+02 5.01e-01 2.66e-02 7.39e-01 1.49e+00 1.17e+00 6.10e-02 1.02e+10 1.63e+092.70e+01 5.96e+02 5.19e-01 2.42e-02 7.24e-01 1.45e+00 1.17e+00 5.83e-02 1.01e+10 1.60e+092.90e+01 5.67e+02 5.31e-01 2.29e-02 7.12e-01 1.40e+00 1.16e+00 5.64e-02 1.00e+10 1.57e+093.09e+01 5.44e+02 5.24e-01 2.21e-02 6.96e-01 1.36e+00 1.13e+00 5.42e-02 1.01e+10 1.57e+093.29e+01 5.25e+02 5.10e-01 2.30e-02 6.77e-01 1.31e+00 1.08e+00 6.81e-02 1.02e+10 1.59e+093.48e+01 5.08e+02 4.97e-01 2.20e-02 6.56e-01 1.26e+00 1.04e+00 6.51e-02 1.05e+10 1.63e+093.67e+01 4.91e+02 4.82e-01 2.09e-02 6.33e-01 1.21e+00 9.92e-01 6.12e-02 1.09e+10 1.68e+093.87e+01 4.74e+02 4.66e-01 1.92e-02 6.08e-01 1.15e+00 9.42e-01 5.73e-02 1.13e+10 1.73e+094.06e+01 4.56e+02 4.46e-01 1.73e-02 5.79e-01 1.10e+00 8.89e-01 5.26e-02 1.18e+10 1.78e+094.25e+01 4.40e+02 4.27e-01 1.59e-02 5.50e-01 1.04e+00 8.35e-01 4.83e-02 1.22e+10 1.84e+094.45e+01 4.22e+02 4.08e-01 1.40e-02 5.20e-01 9.95e-01 7.82e-01 4.40e-02 1.27e+10 1.90e+094.64e+01 4.05e+02 3.89e-01 1.26e-02 4.89e-01 9.43e-01 7.33e-01 3.91e-02 1.33e+10 1.97e+094.83e+01 3.86e+02 3.79e-01 1.17e-02 4.60e-01 8.87e-01 7.00e-01 4.20e-02 1.40e+10 2.06e+095.03e+01 3.69e+02 3.61e-01 1.17e-02 4.29e-01 8.39e-01 6.54e-01 4.02e-02 1.47e+10 2.16e+095.22e+01 3.53e+02 3.44e-01 1.21e-02 4.00e-01 7.93e-01 6.10e-01 3.86e-02 1.55e+10 2.26e+095.41e+01 3.37e+02 3.29e-01 1.29e-02 3.71e-01 7.49e-01 5.72e-01 3.76e-02 1.64e+10 2.38e+095.61e+01 3.21e+02 3.14e-01 1.39e-02 3.44e-01 7.08e-01 5.36e-01 3.70e-02 1.73e+10 2.50e+095.80e+01 3.06e+02 3.03e-01 1.49e-02 3.19e-01 6.65e-01 5.05e-01 3.63e-02 1.83e+10 2.63e+095.99e+01 2.91e+02 2.91e-01 1.61e-02 2.96e-01 6.28e-01 4.77e-01 3.39e-02 1.93e+10 2.77e+096.19e+01 2.76e+02 2.79e-01 1.74e-02 2.74e-01 5.93e-01 4.51e-01 3.39e-02 2.03e+10 2.91e+096.38e+01 2.61e+02 2.69e-01 1.85e-02 2.55e-01 5.59e-01 4.28e-01 3.39e-02 2.12e+10 3.04e+096.58e+01 2.46e+02 2.59e-01 1.94e-02 2.37e-01 5.28e-01 4.08e-01 3.38e-02 2.22e+10 3.17e+096.77e+01 2.32e+02 2.49e-01 2.01e-02 2.21e-01 4.99e-01 3.92e-01 3.35e-02 2.32e+10 3.30e+096.96e+01 2.17e+02 2.41e-01 2.05e-02 2.07e-01 4.73e-01 3.80e-01 3.31e-02 2.40e+10 3.43e+097.16e+01 2.03e+02 2.32e-01 2.06e-02 1.94e-01 4.50e-01 3.70e-01 3.24e-02 2.49e+10 3.56e+097.35e+01 1.88e+02 2.24e-01 2.05e-02 1.82e-01 4.29e-01 3.61e-01 3.15e-02 2.56e+10 3.68e+097.54e+01 1.74e+02 2.16e-01 2.00e-02 1.72e-01 4.09e-01 3.53e-01 3.04e-02 2.64e+10 3.81e+097.74e+01 1.60e+02 2.09e-01 1.94e-02 1.63e-01 3.90e-01 3.45e-01 2.90e-02 2.72e+10 3.95e+097.93e+01 1.45e+02 2.01e-01 1.86e-02 1.55e-01 3.73e-01 3.38e-01 2.76e-02 2.81e+10 4.09e+098.12e+01 1.31e+02 1.93e-01 1.79e-02 1.47e-01 3.57e-01 3.29e-01 2.64e-02 2.88e+10 4.23e+098.32e+01 1.18e+02 1.85e-01 1.76e-02 1.39e-01 3.43e-01 3.20e-01 2.54e-02 2.94e+10 4.36e+098.51e+01 1.04e+02 1.75e-01 1.75e-02 1.31e-01 3.30e-01 3.09e-01 2.49e-02 2.98e+10 4.49e+098.70e+01 9.04e+01 1.63e-01 1.75e-02 1.23e-01 3.18e-01 2.96e-01 2.44e-02 3.01e+10 4.62e+098.90e+01 7.58e+01 1.48e-01 1.74e-02 1.12e-01 3.04e-01 2.78e-01 2.38e-02 3.03e+10 4.75e+099.09e+01 6.06e+01 1.27e-01 1.72e-02 9.97e-02 2.87e-01 2.53e-01 2.29e-02 3.03e+10 4.91e+099.28e+01 4.51e+01 9.84e-02 1.60e-02 8.25e-02 2.64e-01 2.23e-01 2.01e-02 2.95e+10 5.02e+099.48e+01 2.87e+01 5.70e-02 1.30e-02 6.10e-02 2.34e-01 1.83e-01 1.60e-02 2.87e+10 5.13e+099.67e+01 1.40e+00 -2.21e-04 1.38e-03 5.31e-03 2.75e-02 5.65e-02 1.60e-03 3.76e+10 5.91e+09

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Table 69: Beam structural properties of the blade in HAWC2 format

s Ix Iy K kx ky A pitch xe ye0.00e+00 3.09e+00 3.14e+00 6.75e+00 5.40e-01 5.41e-01 1.22e+00 -5.89e-01 -1.31e-02 2.51e-041.93e+00 2.32e+00 2.60e+00 5.36e+00 5.69e-01 5.18e-01 9.72e-01 -8.26e+01 -4.37e-02 1.26e-032.90e+00 2.04e+00 3.43e+00 5.43e+00 5.44e-01 5.11e-01 1.10e+00 -8.42e+01 -9.38e-02 1.88e-033.87e+00 2.28e+00 3.70e+00 5.91e+00 5.40e-01 5.38e-01 1.24e+00 -8.38e+01 -8.70e-02 3.32e-034.83e+00 2.47e+00 3.68e+00 6.08e+00 5.34e-01 5.55e-01 1.33e+00 -8.25e+01 -8.24e-02 7.63e-035.80e+00 2.37e+00 3.32e+00 5.57e+00 5.47e-01 5.33e-01 1.29e+00 -8.05e+01 -4.43e-02 1.47e-026.77e+00 2.27e+00 2.97e+00 5.00e+00 5.57e-01 5.06e-01 1.26e+00 -7.72e+01 -3.86e-03 2.16e-027.74e+00 2.17e+00 2.66e+00 4.45e+00 5.66e-01 4.75e-01 1.22e+00 -7.14e+01 3.27e-02 2.75e-028.70e+00 2.06e+00 2.36e+00 3.88e+00 5.75e-01 4.39e-01 1.19e+00 -5.65e+01 7.03e-02 3.22e-029.67e+00 1.87e+00 2.18e+00 3.31e+00 5.83e-01 4.00e-01 1.15e+00 -2.83e+01 1.10e-01 3.69e-021.16e+01 1.41e+00 2.10e+00 2.35e+00 5.82e-01 3.32e-01 1.11e+00 -1.00e+01 1.90e-01 4.80e-021.35e+01 1.15e+00 2.20e+00 1.78e+00 5.59e-01 2.87e-01 1.10e+00 -5.87e+00 2.72e-01 5.01e-021.54e+01 1.01e+00 2.36e+00 1.52e+00 5.27e-01 2.63e-01 1.11e+00 -3.78e+00 3.43e-01 4.78e-021.74e+01 9.17e-01 2.59e+00 1.34e+00 4.89e-01 2.52e-01 1.13e+00 -2.35e+00 4.01e-01 4.62e-021.93e+01 8.13e-01 2.61e+00 1.13e+00 4.47e-01 2.49e-01 1.11e+00 -1.65e+00 4.51e-01 4.06e-022.12e+01 7.20e-01 2.50e+00 9.29e-01 3.94e-01 2.52e-01 1.07e+00 -1.28e+00 4.96e-01 3.12e-022.32e+01 6.69e-01 2.39e+00 7.85e-01 3.41e-01 2.61e-01 1.03e+00 -1.02e+00 5.28e-01 2.37e-022.51e+01 6.33e-01 2.25e+00 6.91e-01 3.01e-01 2.73e-01 1.00e+00 -8.18e-01 5.48e-01 2.05e-022.70e+01 5.84e-01 2.03e+00 5.92e-01 2.64e-01 2.86e-01 9.63e-01 -6.25e-01 5.69e-01 1.78e-022.90e+01 5.41e-01 1.84e+00 5.14e-01 2.33e-01 2.99e-01 9.22e-01 -4.45e-01 5.81e-01 1.64e-023.09e+01 4.94e-01 1.64e+00 4.54e-01 2.18e-01 3.08e-01 8.81e-01 -3.00e-01 5.73e-01 1.57e-023.29e+01 4.45e-01 1.46e+00 4.08e-01 2.17e-01 3.12e-01 8.40e-01 -2.07e-01 5.58e-01 1.73e-023.48e+01 3.93e-01 1.27e+00 3.66e-01 2.21e-01 3.14e-01 7.94e-01 -1.01e-01 5.44e-01 1.65e-023.67e+01 3.43e-01 1.09e+00 3.25e-01 2.25e-01 3.13e-01 7.46e-01 -2.03e-02 5.28e-01 1.56e-023.87e+01 2.95e-01 9.38e-01 2.85e-01 2.30e-01 3.10e-01 7.00e-01 5.80e-02 5.10e-01 1.42e-024.06e+01 2.50e-01 7.96e-01 2.47e-01 2.37e-01 3.04e-01 6.56e-01 9.54e-02 4.87e-01 1.26e-024.25e+01 2.11e-01 6.72e-01 2.13e-01 2.47e-01 2.96e-01 6.15e-01 1.57e-01 4.65e-01 1.15e-024.45e+01 1.74e-01 5.61e-01 1.81e-01 2.61e-01 2.88e-01 5.73e-01 1.91e-01 4.43e-01 9.93e-034.64e+01 1.42e-01 4.67e-01 1.52e-01 2.76e-01 2.78e-01 5.32e-01 2.24e-01 4.21e-01 8.85e-034.83e+01 1.15e-01 3.81e-01 1.25e-01 2.93e-01 2.66e-01 4.89e-01 2.87e-01 4.03e-01 8.35e-035.03e+01 9.16e-02 3.12e-01 1.03e-01 3.11e-01 2.55e-01 4.49e-01 3.28e-01 3.83e-01 8.63e-035.22e+01 7.24e-02 2.54e-01 8.49e-02 3.31e-01 2.44e-01 4.11e-01 3.66e-01 3.64e-01 9.28e-035.41e+01 5.68e-02 2.07e-01 6.90e-02 3.53e-01 2.33e-01 3.75e-01 4.10e-01 3.47e-01 1.03e-025.61e+01 4.43e-02 1.68e-01 5.56e-02 3.76e-01 2.22e-01 3.42e-01 4.52e-01 3.30e-01 1.16e-025.80e+01 3.45e-02 1.34e-01 4.46e-02 4.01e-01 2.12e-01 3.11e-01 4.95e-01 3.16e-01 1.28e-025.99e+01 2.68e-02 1.09e-01 3.58e-02 4.31e-01 2.02e-01 2.82e-01 5.43e-01 3.02e-01 1.43e-026.19e+01 2.08e-02 8.82e-02 2.86e-02 4.56e-01 1.92e-01 2.57e-01 5.95e-01 2.89e-01 1.58e-026.38e+01 1.63e-02 7.13e-02 2.28e-02 4.81e-01 1.83e-01 2.33e-01 6.50e-01 2.76e-01 1.71e-026.58e+01 1.28e-02 5.76e-02 1.83e-02 5.06e-01 1.75e-01 2.12e-01 7.03e-01 2.65e-01 1.82e-026.77e+01 1.00e-02 4.67e-02 1.47e-02 5.29e-01 1.68e-01 1.92e-01 7.48e-01 2.54e-01 1.91e-026.96e+01 7.97e-03 3.79e-02 1.20e-02 5.53e-01 1.63e-01 1.74e-01 7.75e-01 2.44e-01 1.96e-027.16e+01 6.32e-03 3.09e-02 9.81e-03 5.76e-01 1.60e-01 1.58e-01 7.81e-01 2.35e-01 1.98e-027.35e+01 5.02e-03 2.52e-02 8.06e-03 5.98e-01 1.57e-01 1.42e-01 7.67e-01 2.26e-01 1.98e-027.54e+01 4.02e-03 2.05e-02 6.65e-03 6.19e-01 1.56e-01 1.27e-01 7.40e-01 2.17e-01 1.94e-027.74e+01 3.21e-03 1.65e-02 5.49e-03 6.38e-01 1.56e-01 1.13e-01 7.00e-01 2.10e-01 1.88e-027.93e+01 2.57e-03 1.33e-02 4.54e-03 6.55e-01 1.58e-01 1.00e-01 6.52e-01 2.02e-01 1.80e-028.12e+01 2.04e-03 1.06e-02 3.73e-03 6.72e-01 1.59e-01 8.85e-02 5.83e-01 1.93e-01 1.74e-028.32e+01 1.60e-03 8.53e-03 3.04e-03 6.89e-01 1.60e-01 7.75e-02 5.14e-01 1.85e-01 1.72e-028.51e+01 1.24e-03 6.76e-03 2.45e-03 7.07e-01 1.62e-01 6.72e-02 4.15e-01 1.75e-01 1.71e-028.70e+01 9.31e-04 5.25e-03 1.92e-03 7.28e-01 1.62e-01 5.73e-02 3.19e-01 1.64e-01 1.72e-028.90e+01 6.49e-04 3.89e-03 1.41e-03 7.48e-01 1.61e-01 4.73e-02 1.81e-01 1.49e-01 1.72e-029.09e+01 4.05e-04 2.69e-03 9.45e-04 7.69e-01 1.58e-01 3.73e-02 4.11e-02 1.29e-01 1.71e-029.28e+01 2.11e-04 1.68e-03 5.21e-04 7.76e-01 1.44e-01 2.80e-02 -2.43e-01 1.03e-01 1.60e-029.48e+01 7.52e-05 8.48e-04 1.98e-04 7.12e-01 1.16e-01 1.79e-02 -5.75e-01 6.32e-02 1.32e-029.67e+01 2.07e-08 5.61e-07 5.39e-09 8.23e-01 1.74e+00 7.38e-04 -3.58e-01 -2.23e-04 1.38e-03

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Table 70: Position of the structural components with regard to the structural reference plane

η Cap center SS Cap center PS Cap width SS Cap width PS TE width LE width Web1 pos Web2 pos Web3 pos

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.000 63.327 -0.670 1445.023 1445.023 800.000 1000.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.0000.010 62.548 -0.718 1441.352 1441.352 798.656 994.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.0000.030 60.990 -0.813 1434.011 1434.011 794.555 982.000 -0.000 -442.500 442.5000.050 59.431 -0.908 1426.670 1426.670 790.012 970.000 -2000.000 -437.500 437.5000.100 55.536 -1.146 1398.318 1398.318 780.000 940.000 -2000.000 -425.000 425.0000.150 51.641 -1.384 1349.966 1349.966 770.000 910.000 -2000.000 -412.500 412.5000.200 47.745 -1.622 1301.613 1301.613 760.000 880.000 -2000.000 -400.000 400.0000.250 43.850 -1.860 1253.261 1253.261 750.000 850.000 -2000.000 -387.500 387.5000.325 38.006 -2.217 1180.732 1180.732 735.000 805.000 -2000.000 -368.750 368.7500.400 32.163 -2.575 1108.203 1108.203 720.000 760.000 -2000.000 -350.000 350.0000.475 26.320 -2.932 1035.675 1035.675 705.000 715.000 -2000.000 -331.250 331.2500.550 20.477 -3.289 963.146 963.146 690.000 670.000 -0.000 -312.500 312.5000.625 14.634 -3.646 890.617 890.617 675.000 625.000 -0.000 -293.750 293.7500.700 8.791 -4.003 818.089 818.089 660.000 580.000 -0.000 -275.000 275.0000.775 2.947 -4.360 745.560 745.560 644.994 535.000 -0.000 -256.250 256.2500.850 -2.896 -4.717 673.031 673.031 632.174 490.000 -0.000 -237.500 237.5000.925 -8.739 -5.074 600.503 600.503 557.829 445.000 -0.000 -218.750 218.7500.980 -13.024 -5.336 547.315 547.315 232.367 412.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.0001.000 0.000 0.000 527.974 527.974 50.000 400.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000

Table 71: Beam structural properties of the nacelle, turret, shaft, and hub assembly in HAWC2 format.

s dm xcg ycg rix riy xsh ysh E G0.000e+00 1.000e+00 0.0 0.0 1.000e-02 1.000e-02 0.0 0.0 1.000e+15 1.000e+161.800e+00 1.000e+00 0.0 0.0 1.000e-02 1.000e-02 0.0 0.0 1.000e+15 1.000e+161.801e+00 1.809e+04 0.0 0.0 6.410e-01 6.410e-01 0.0 0.0 2.100e+11 8.080e+102.201e+00 1.809e+04 0.0 0.0 6.410e-01 6.410e-01 0.0 0.0 2.100e+11 8.080e+102.211e+00 6.588e+03 0.0 0.0 5.430e-01 5.430e-01 0.0 0.0 2.100e+11 8.080e+103.701e+00 6.588e+03 0.0 0.0 5.430e-01 5.430e-01 0.0 0.0 2.100e+11 8.080e+105.501e+00 1.078e+04 0.0 0.0 6.250e-01 6.250e-01 0.0 0.0 2.100e+11 8.080e+105.511e+00 3.521e+04 0.0 0.0 7.990e-01 7.990e-01 0.0 0.0 2.100e+11 8.080e+106.051e+00 3.521e+04 0.0 0.0 7.990e-01 7.990e-01 0.0 0.0 2.100e+11 8.080e+106.061e+00 1.080e+04 0.0 0.0 6.250e-01 6.250e-01 0.0 0.0 2.100e+11 8.080e+106.801e+00 1.621e+04 0.0 0.0 5.870e-01 5.870e-01 0.0 0.0 2.100e+11 8.080e+107.051e+00 5.434e+04 0.0 0.0 8.540e-01 8.540e-01 0.0 0.0 2.100e+11 8.080e+107.200e+00 5.434e+04 0.0 0.0 8.540e-01 8.540e-01 0.0 0.0 2.100e+11 8.080e+107.201e+00 1.000e+00 0.0 0.0 1.000e-02 1.000e-02 0.0 0.0 1.000e+15 1.000e+169.670e+00 1.000e+00 0.0 0.0 1.000e-02 1.000e-02 0.0 0.0 1.000e+15 1.000e+16

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Table 72: Beam structural properties of the nacelle, turret, shaft, and hub assembly in HAWC2 format.

s Ix Iy K kx ky A pitch xe ye0.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 0.0 0.0 0.01.800e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 0.0 0.0 0.01.801e+00 9.460e-01 9.460e-01 1.891e+00 8.530e-01 8.530e-01 2.301e+00 0.0 0.0 0.02.201e+00 9.460e-01 9.460e-01 1.891e+00 8.530e-01 8.530e-01 2.301e+00 0.0 0.0 0.02.211e+00 2.470e-01 2.470e-01 4.940e-01 6.720e-01 6.720e-01 8.380e-01 0.0 0.0 0.03.701e+00 2.470e-01 2.470e-01 4.940e-01 6.720e-01 6.720e-01 8.380e-01 0.0 0.0 0.05.501e+00 5.350e-01 5.350e-01 1.071e+00 7.140e-01 7.140e-01 1.371e+00 0.0 0.0 0.05.511e+00 2.856e+00 2.856e+00 5.712e+00 9.580e-01 9.580e-01 4.479e+00 0.0 0.0 0.06.051e+00 2.856e+00 2.856e+00 5.712e+00 9.580e-01 9.580e-01 4.479e+00 0.0 0.0 0.06.061e+00 5.370e-01 5.370e-01 1.074e+00 7.140e-01 7.140e-01 1.374e+00 0.0 0.0 0.06.801e+00 7.100e-01 7.100e-01 1.419e+00 8.810e-01 8.810e-01 2.062e+00 0.0 0.0 0.07.051e+00 5.045e+00 5.045e+00 1.009e+01 1.182e+00 1.182e+00 6.912e+00 0.0 0.0 0.07.200e+00 5.045e+00 5.045e+00 1.009e+01 1.182e+00 1.182e+00 6.912e+00 0.0 0.0 0.07.201e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 0.0 0.0 0.09.670e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 1.000e+00 0.0 0.0 0.0

Height Cross Mass Radius Second Torsional

Sectional per of Moment of Stiffness

Area Length Gyration Area Constant

m m2 kg/m m4 m4

0.000 0.98632 8383.74 2.921 8.41605 16.83210

11.500 0.95308 8101.16 2.823 7.59342 15.18684

11.501 0.90314 7676.68 2.823 7.19909 14.39819

23.000 0.87165 7409.00 2.725 6.47197 12.94394

23.001 0.82343 6999.18 2.726 6.11710 12.23421

34.500 0.79369 6746.37 2.627 5.47792 10.95583

34.501 0.74720 6351.21 2.628 5.15979 10.31958

46.000 0.71921 6113.27 2.529 4.60134 9.20267

46.001 0.67444 5732.78 2.530 4.31732 8.63463

57.500 0.64820 5509.71 2.432 3.83271 7.66541

57.501 0.60516 5143.87 2.432 3.58027 7.16053

69.000 0.58067 4935.68 2.334 3.16290 6.32580

69.001 0.53935 4584.50 2.335 2.93961 5.87921

80.500 0.51661 4391.17 2.236 2.58319 5.16638

80.501 0.47702 4054.66 2.237 2.38671 4.77342

92.000 0.45602 3876.20 2.138 2.08525 4.17049

92.001 0.41816 3554.35 2.139 1.91334 3.82669

103.500 0.39891 3390.76 2.041 1.66114 3.32229

103.501 0.36277 3083.57 2.041 1.51168 3.02335

115.630 0.34432 2926.71 1.937 1.29252 2.58504

Table 73: Cross section stiffness and mass properties of the tower. Reproduced from [4].

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Table 74: Material thicknesses in the trailing-edge reinforcement region (DP00-DP02 and DP15-DP17 inFigure 23).

η triax00 uniax00 triax01

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00000 8.00000 70.00000 8.000000.01000 7.86753 69.85357 7.867530.03000 7.62134 31.46486 7.621340.05000 7.38447 31.07635 7.384470.10000 5.67751 26.18724 5.677510.15000 4.03534 22.23692 4.035340.20000 2.73966 20.28272 2.739660.25000 1.65892 19.22599 1.658920.32500 0.82252 17.23762 0.822520.40000 0.56426 15.18824 0.564260.47500 0.40011 13.11602 0.400110.55000 0.33868 11.13263 0.338680.62500 0.35833 9.32695 0.358330.70000 0.39453 7.63334 0.394530.77500 0.56737 5.97388 0.567370.85000 0.81173 4.10204 0.811730.92500 1.19772 2.16123 1.197720.98000 1.63914 1.00611 1.639141.00000 1.83414 0.92178 1.83414

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Table 75: Material thicknesses in the main-panel region (DP02-DP04 and DP13-DP15 in Figure 23).

η triax00 uniax00 balsa00 uniax01 triax01

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00000 8.00000 35.00000 0.00000 35.00000 8.000000.01000 7.85562 35.00000 0.00000 35.00000 7.855620.03000 7.59567 7.94313 13.72647 7.94313 7.595670.05000 7.35630 7.87383 17.48073 7.87383 7.356300.10000 5.68137 5.82487 37.85444 5.82487 5.681370.15000 4.11245 3.80106 59.19593 3.80106 4.112450.20000 2.92062 2.13546 69.49772 2.13546 2.920620.25000 1.96765 0.77203 70.00000 0.77203 1.967650.32500 1.35832 0.00000 70.00000 0.00000 1.358320.40000 1.36100 0.00000 66.76000 0.00000 1.361000.47500 1.48657 0.00000 64.33235 0.00000 1.486570.55000 1.71923 0.00000 58.52124 0.00000 1.719230.62500 2.06310 0.00000 48.48791 0.00000 2.063100.70000 2.47522 0.00000 38.12001 0.00000 2.475220.77500 2.95092 0.00000 29.53813 0.00000 2.950920.85000 3.53859 0.00000 20.71924 0.00000 3.538590.92500 4.26982 0.00000 14.10794 0.00000 4.269820.98000 4.94388 0.00000 11.36986 0.00000 4.943881.00000 5.24559 0.00000 10.00000 0.00000 5.24559

Table 76: Material thicknesses in the spar cap region (DP04-DP07 and DP10-DP13 in Figure 23).

η triax00 uniax00 triax01

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00000 8.00000 70.00000 8.000000.01000 7.85158 70.00000 7.851580.03000 7.45871 70.00000 7.458710.05000 6.90438 70.00000 6.904380.10000 3.58516 73.39493 3.585160.15000 0.51223 78.03234 0.512230.20000 0.40000 73.47955 0.400000.25000 0.40000 68.83992 0.400000.32500 0.40000 64.50527 0.400000.40000 0.40000 61.72287 0.400000.47500 0.40000 59.20501 0.400000.55000 0.40000 56.45319 0.400000.62500 0.40000 53.69106 0.400000.70000 0.40000 49.98219 0.400000.77500 0.40000 43.16906 0.400000.85000 0.40000 33.72269 0.400000.92500 0.40000 20.92222 0.400000.98000 0.40000 8.28438 0.400001.00000 0.40000 3.00000 0.40000

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Table 77: Material thicknesses in the leading-panel region (DP07-DP08 and DP09-DP10 in Figure 23).

η triax00 uniax00 balsa00 uniax01 triax01

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00000 8.00000 35.00000 0.00000 35.00000 8.000000.01000 7.94414 34.76058 0.00000 34.76058 7.944140.03000 7.83267 7.33220 11.34417 7.33220 7.832670.05000 7.70242 7.00924 12.71701 7.00924 7.702420.10000 6.18170 4.71368 20.70374 4.71368 6.181700.15000 4.63933 2.83823 30.12736 2.83823 4.639330.20000 3.42364 1.58890 34.77312 1.58890 3.423640.25000 2.40084 0.82757 35.00000 0.82757 2.400840.32500 1.58624 1.18382 33.45733 1.18382 1.586240.40000 1.31986 2.45801 30.00000 2.45801 1.319860.47500 1.22613 3.76610 28.69302 3.76610 1.226130.55000 1.25023 5.00729 25.10338 5.00729 1.250230.62500 1.32690 6.07684 22.09250 6.07684 1.326900.70000 1.42396 6.84971 18.72395 6.84971 1.423960.77500 1.69446 7.15523 15.56165 7.15523 1.694460.85000 2.04462 6.72488 12.26978 6.72488 2.044620.92500 2.59408 5.05297 8.11572 5.05297 2.594080.98000 3.20397 2.37364 5.00000 2.37364 3.203971.00000 3.49012 0.85136 5.00000 0.85136 3.49012

Table 78: Material thicknesses in the leading-edge reinforcement region (DP08-DP09 in Figure 23).

η triax00 uniax00 balsa00 uniax01 triax01

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00000 8.00000 35.00000 0.00000 35.00000 8.000000.01000 7.94414 34.97471 0.00000 34.97471 7.944140.03000 7.83267 7.90588 11.34417 7.90588 7.832670.05000 7.70242 7.84107 12.71701 7.84107 7.702420.10000 6.18170 6.90597 20.70374 6.90597 6.181700.15000 4.63933 5.59489 30.12736 5.59489 4.639330.20000 3.42364 3.74732 34.77312 3.74732 3.423640.25000 2.40084 1.74157 35.00000 1.74157 2.400840.32500 1.58624 0.48885 33.45733 0.48885 1.586240.40000 1.31986 0.54644 30.00000 0.54644 1.319860.47500 1.22613 0.65148 28.69302 0.65148 1.226130.55000 1.25023 0.75084 25.10338 0.75084 1.250230.62500 1.32690 0.77836 22.09250 0.77836 1.326900.70000 1.42396 0.61785 18.72395 0.61785 1.423960.77500 1.69446 0.59653 15.56165 0.59653 1.694460.85000 2.04462 0.65853 12.26978 0.65853 2.044620.92500 2.59408 0.68755 8.11572 0.68755 2.594080.98000 3.20397 0.65337 5.00000 0.65337 3.203971.00000 3.49012 0.61943 5.00000 0.61943 3.49012

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Table 79: Material thicknesses in the trailing-edge (DP17-DP00 in Figure 23).

η triax00 uniax00 triax01

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00000 8.00000 105.00000 8.000000.01000 7.99134 104.61582 7.991340.03000 7.97067 23.91070 7.970670.05000 7.93463 23.80187 7.934630.10000 6.64409 20.52163 6.644090.15000 5.32583 17.87180 5.325830.20000 4.28253 16.65711 4.282530.25000 3.39751 16.06638 3.397510.32500 2.76458 14.79970 2.764580.40000 2.62062 13.40353 2.620620.47500 2.49289 11.91301 2.492890.55000 2.39561 10.41403 2.395610.62500 2.30906 8.97049 2.309060.70000 2.16744 7.52528 2.167440.77500 2.08182 6.00525 2.081820.85000 1.97236 4.19802 1.972360.92500 1.87379 2.15106 1.873790.98000 1.82780 0.66086 1.827801.00000 1.80000 0.30000 1.80000

Table 80: Material thicknesses in the aft shear web (DP03-DP14 in Figure 23).

η biax00 balsa00 biax01

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.01000 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.03000 3.00000 15.00000 3.000000.05000 3.00000 15.00000 3.000000.10000 3.00000 15.00000 3.000000.15000 3.00000 15.00000 3.000000.20000 3.00000 14.99867 3.000000.25000 3.00000 14.99777 3.000000.32500 3.00000 10.53070 3.000000.40000 3.00000 6.76009 3.000000.47500 3.00000 3.69287 3.000000.55000 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.62500 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.70000 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.77500 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.85000 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.92500 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.98000 0.00000 0.00000 0.000001.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000

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Table 81: Material thicknesses in the spar cap aft shear web (DP05-DP12 in Figure 23).

η biax00 balsa00 biax01

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.01000 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.03000 1.56906 37.47041 1.569060.05000 2.57858 61.55510 2.578580.10000 2.62508 60.28434 2.625080.15000 2.86546 55.25406 2.865460.20000 3.34472 54.99157 3.344720.25000 3.85841 51.48679 3.858410.32500 4.50604 44.11084 4.506040.40000 4.69832 36.99965 4.698320.47500 4.63905 29.89005 4.639050.55000 4.51683 21.95539 4.516830.62500 4.33661 16.39321 4.336610.70000 4.04147 13.91678 4.041470.77500 3.72536 11.05064 3.725360.85000 3.32715 6.95328 3.327150.92500 2.65557 5.00776 2.655570.98000 1.56111 5.00000 1.561111.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000

Table 82: Material thicknesses in the spar cap front shear web (DP06-DP11 in Figure 23).

η biax00 balsa00 biax01

[-] [mm] [mm] [mm]

0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.01000 0.00000 0.00000 0.000000.03000 1.56906 37.47041 1.569060.05000 2.57858 61.55510 2.578580.10000 2.62508 60.28434 2.625080.15000 2.86546 55.25406 2.865460.20000 3.34472 54.99157 3.344720.25000 3.85841 51.48679 3.858410.32500 4.50604 44.11084 4.506040.40000 4.69832 36.99965 4.698320.47500 4.63905 29.89005 4.639050.55000 4.51683 21.95539 4.516830.62500 4.33661 16.39321 4.336610.70000 4.04147 13.91678 4.041470.77500 3.72536 11.05064 3.725360.85000 3.32715 6.95328 3.327150.92500 2.65557 5.00776 2.655570.98000 1.56111 5.00000 1.561111.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000

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B.4 Nacelle Assembly

Table 83: Equivalent point mass properties of the nacelle assembly of the 10-MW offshore wind turbine.The reference frame is located at tower top with z aligned with the tower axis pointing upwards, y pointingupwind toward the wind parallel to the ground, and x pointing sideways parallel to the ground. cog standsfor center of mass and I for area moment of inertia.

Component Yam Nacelle turret Inner generator Outer generator Shaft Hub Overallbearing and nose stator rotor

Mass [kg] 93457 109450 187673 169606 78894 81707 720787xcog [m] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00ycog [m] 0.00 1.89 5.68 5.66 5.17 10.02 4.80zcog [m] 0.40 3.16 3.46 3.46 3.41 3.84 3.05Ixx [kg m2] 1.66E+05 2.13E+06 1.02E+07 9.47E+06 3.28E+06 9.89E+06 3.51E+07Iyy [kg m2] 1.65E+05 1.41E+06 5.94E+06 5.83E+06 9.96E+05 1.68E+06 1.60E+07Izz [kg m2] 2.83E+05 1.05E+06 7.96E+06 7.46E+06 2.36E+06 8.69E+06 2.78E+07

Table 84: Lumped masses for the nacelle assembly in HAWC2 coordinates of the tower top (see red coordinatesystem with subscript TT in Fig. 37). Note that the total mass of the nacelle assembly for the HAWC2 modelis separated out into the lumped massed from this table, and the distributed properties for the beams asdefined in Table 86.

Name YTT [m] ZTT [m] Mass [kg] Ixx [kg m2] Iyy [kg m2] Izz [kg m2]

Yaw bearing 0.0 -0.397 93457 1.65992E+05 1.64950E+05 2.83202E+05Turret nose and cone -1.894 -3.200 109450 2.12563E+06 3.20078E+05 1.04726E+06Inner generator stator -5.679 -3.457 187673 1.01895E+07 3.74518E+06 7.96002E+06

Table 85: Lumped masses for the nacelle assembly in HAWC2 coordinates of the shaft and which is tilted 6degrees with respect to the horizontal (see red coordinate system with subscript shaft in Fig. 37). Note thatthe total mass of the nacelle assembly for the HAWC2 model is separated out into the lumped massed fromthis table, and the distributed properties for the beams as defined in Table 86.

Name YTT [m] ZTT [m] Mass [kg] Ixx [kg m2] Iyy [kg m2] Izz [kg m2]

Outer generator rotor 0.000 5.784 169606 9.46827E+06 2.03071E+06 3.80170E+06Hub 0.000 9.690 81707 9.89248E+06 4.84305E+05 4.76512E+05

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yaw

_be

arin

g1.

22m

tow

erto

p1.

74m

7.201m

hub

_hei

ght

2.47

2m

turret1.801m

Node 2

Node 3 Node 6

hub_length

2.838m

Node 4

Node 1

Node 5

Node 7

Shaft tilt angle6 deg

Tower115.63m

YTT

ZTT

yaw

be

arin

g0

.397

m

turret1.894m

3.4

57m

sta

tor

3.45

6m

ro

tor

5.679m stator5.663m rotor

hub10.021m

3.8

37m

hu

b

Zshaft

Yshaft

shaft5.4m

3.1

64m

tur r

et

Figure 37: Beam model representation of the nacelle assembly. The location of the lumped masses are givenin blue.

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Table 86: Equivalent elastic properties of the shaft of the 10-MW offshore wind turbine. r is the coordinatealong the shaft axis, where the 0 is at the main bearing and 5.4 m at the hub connection. The beam assumesthe Timoshenko formulation used in HAWC2 [18].

r mass xcog ycog rix riy xsh ysh E G[m] [kg/m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [N/m2] [N/m2]0.00 18088.16 0 0 0.641 0.641 0 0 2.10E+11 8.08E+100.40 18088.16 0 0 0.641 0.641 0 0 2.10E+11 8.08E+100.41 6587.52 0 0 0.543 0.543 0 0 2.10E+11 8.08E+101.90 6587.52 0 0 0.543 0.543 0 0 2.10E+11 8.08E+103.70 10777.43 0 0 0.625 0.625 0 0 2.10E+11 8.08E+103.71 35209.42 0 0 0.799 0.799 0 0 2.10E+11 8.08E+104.25 35209.42 0 0 0.799 0.799 0 0 2.10E+11 8.08E+104.26 10801.01 0 0 0.625 0.625 0 0 2.10E+11 8.08E+105.00 16209.38 0 0 0.587 0.587 0 0 2.10E+11 8.08E+105.25 54335.23 0 0 0.854 0.854 0 0 2.10E+11 8.08E+105.40 54335.23 0 0 0.854 0.854 0 0 2.10E+11 8.08E+10

r Ix Iy K kx ky A thetas xe ye

[m] [m4] [m4] [m4] [-] [-] [m2] [deg] [m] [m]0.00 0.95 0.95 1.89 0.52 0.52 2.30 0 0 00.40 0.95 0.95 1.89 0.52 0.52 2.30 0 0 00.41 0.25 0.25 0.49 0.52 0.52 0.84 0 0 01.90 0.25 0.25 0.49 0.52 0.52 0.84 0 0 03.70 0.54 0.54 1.07 0.52 0.52 1.37 0 0 03.71 2.86 2.86 5.71 0.52 0.52 4.48 0 0 04.25 2.86 2.86 5.71 0.52 0.52 4.48 0 0 04.26 0.54 0.54 1.07 0.52 0.52 1.37 0 0 05.00 0.71 0.71 1.42 0.52 0.52 2.06 0 0 05.25 5.05 5.05 10.09 0.52 0.52 6.91 0 0 05.40 5.05 5.05 10.09 0.52 0.52 6.91 0 0 0

r din dout A r t t/r k[m] [m] [m] [m2] [m] [m] [-] [-]0.00 1.35 2.18 2.30 0.88 0.42 0.47 0.850.40 1.35 2.18 2.30 0.88 0.42 0.47 0.850.41 1.35 1.70 0.84 0.76 0.18 0.23 0.671.90 1.35 1.70 0.84 0.76 0.18 0.23 0.673.70 1.50 2.00 1.37 0.88 0.25 0.29 0.713.71 1.50 2.82 4.48 1.08 0.66 0.61 0.964.25 1.50 2.82 4.48 1.08 0.66 0.61 0.964.26 1.50 2.00 1.37 0.88 0.25 0.29 0.715.00 1.20 2.02 2.06 0.80 0.41 0.51 0.885.25 1.20 3.20 6.91 1.10 1.00 0.91 1.185.40 1.20 3.20 6.91 1.10 1.00 0.91 1.18

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B.5 Generator

Table 87: Electromagnetic design of the 10-MW reference direct-drive generator.

Parameter Description Value Units

Pr Rated Power at generator terminals 10 MWωr Rated speed 0.9089 rad/sfe Electrical frequency 14.46 HzTr Rated Torque 11.704 MNm

Electromagnetic Design

rg Air gap radius 5.15 ml Core length 1.770 mg Air gap length 10.29 mmp Poles 200 -S Stator Slots 240 -hys Stator yoke thickness 45 mmhyr Rotor yoke thickness 45 mmτp Pole pitch 161.8 mmτs Slot pitch 134.5 mmhs Slot height 130.98 mmbs Slot width 32.75 mmbt Tooth width 101.09 mmhm Magnet height 39.5 mmbm Magnet width 129.42 mmV RMS line voltage 3933 VI Nominal winding current(RMS) 907.64 ARs Stator winding resistance per phase 0.16 ohmNs Stator winding turns per phase 320 turns

Bg Peak air gap flux density 1.12 TeslaJs Winding current density 4.66 A/mm2

A1 Specific current loading 53.96 kA/mη Efficiency 94.36 %

MIron Iron mass 85.82 tonMCu Copper mass 6.5 ton

MMagnet Magnet Mass 11.88 tonMActive Total Active Mass 104.21 ton

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Table 88: Structural design of the 10-MW reference direct-drive generator.

Parameter Description Value Units

Structural Design

DHUBL Hub outer diameter (Upwind) 2.75 mDHUBR Hub outer diameter (Downwind) 3.65 mLL Distance of generator center from Upwind Hub 1.0 mLR Distance of generator center from Downwind Hub 1.09 mαL Angle of upwind spoke with rotor plane 1.73 degαR Angle of downwind spoke with rotor plane 3.47 degnL Number of upwind rotor spokes 5 -nR Number of downwind rotor spokes 5 -dL Upwind spoke depth 150 mmdR Downwind spoke depth 150 mmtwL Upwind spoke wall thickness 40 mmtwR Downwind spoke wall thickness 40 mmhrst Rotor frame thickness 218 mmDshaft Main Shaft diameter 3.13 mnr Number of stator spokes 5 -dr Stator spoke depth 600 mmtwr Stator spoke arm thickness 50 mmhst Stator frame thickness 223 mm

MSStru Total Rotor Structural Steel mass 137.24 tonMRStru Total Stator Structural steel mass 115.8 tonMGen Estimated Total Generator Mass 357.3 ton

Table 89: Physical parameters for the converter and transformer of the 10-MW RWT.

Parameter Description Value Units

CDC DC link capacitance 0.00437 Faradηc Converter Efficiency (applies to each of the inverter and rectifier) 99.25 %

Ns/Np Transformer turns ratio 8.75Lp Primary winding inductance 0.153 mHLs Secondary winding inductance 11.7 mHRp Primary winding resistance 0.0030 ΩRst Secondary winding resistance 0.23 Ω

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B.6 Controller Inputs

Below, the settings used to evaluate the 10-MW offshore turbine using the Basic DTU Wind Energy Con-troller are listed:

\small

constant 1 10000.0 ; Rated power [kW]

constant 2 0.628318 ; Minimum rotor (LSS) speed [rad/s]

constant 3 0.909389 ; Rated rotor (LSS) speed [rad/s]

constant 4 15.6E+06 ; Maximum allowable generator torque [Nm]

constant 5 100.0 ; Minimum pitch angle, theta_min [deg],

; if |theta_min|>90, then a table of <wsp,theta_min> is read;

; from a file named ’wptable.n’, where n=int(theta_min)

constant 6 90.0 ; Maximum pitch angle [deg]

constant 7 10.0 ; Maximum pitch velocity operation [deg/s]

constant 8 0.4 ; Frequency of generator speed filter [Hz]

constant 9 0.7 ; Damping ratio of speed filter [-]

constant 10 3.43 ; Frequency of free-free DT torsion mode [Hz],

; if zero no notch filter used

; Partial load control parameters

constant 11 0.0 ; Optimal Cp tracking K factor [Nm/(rad/s)^2], ;

; Qg=K*Omega^2, K=eta*0.5*rho*A*Cp_opt*R^3/lambda_opt^3

constant 12 0.708402e8 ; Proportional gain of torque controller [Nm/(rad/s)]

constant 13 0.158965e8 ; Integral gain of torque controller [Nm/rad]

constant 14 0.0 ; Differential gain of torque controller [Nm/(rad/s^2)]

; Full load control parameters

constant 15 2 ; Generator control switch [1=constant pwr, 0=constant trq]

constant 16 1.193240 ; Proportional gain of pitch controller [rad/(rad/s)]

constant 17 0.366725 ; Integral gain of pitch controller [rad/rad]

constant 18 0.0 ; Differential gain of pitch controller [rad/(rad/s^2)]

constant 19 0.4e-9 ; Proportional power error gain [rad/W]

constant 20 0.4e-9 ; Integral power error gain [rad/(Ws)]

constant 21 9.935269 ; Coeff. of linear term in aerod. gain scheduling, KK1 [deg]

constant 22 440.019113 ; Coeff. of quadratic term in aerod. gain scheduling,

; KK2 [deg^2] & (if zero, KK1 = pitch angle at double gain)

constant 23 1.3 ; Relative speed for double nonlinear gain [-]

; Cut-in simulation parameters

constant 24 -1 ; Cut-in time [s], no cut-in is simulated if zero or negative

constant 25 1.0 ; Time delay for soft start of torque [1/1P]

; Cut-out simulation parameters

constant 26 -1 ; Shut-down time [s], no shut-down is simulated if zero or negative

constant 27 5.0 ; Time of linear torque cut-out during a generator assisted stop [s]

constant 28 1 ; Stop type [1=normal, 2=emergency]

constant 29 1.0 ; Time delay for pitch stop after shut-down signal [s]

constant 30 3 ; Maximum pitch velocity during initial period of stop [deg/s]

constant 31 3.0 ; Time period of initial pitch stop phase [s]

; (maintains pitch speed specified in constant 30)

constant 32 4 ; Maximum pitch velocity during final phase of stop [deg/s]

; Expert parameters (keep default values unless otherwise given)

constant 33 2.0 ; Time for the maximum torque rate = Maximum allowable

;generator torque/(constant 33 + 0.01s) [s]

constant 34 2.0 ; Upper angle above lowest minimum pitch angle for switch [deg],

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;if equal then hard switch

constant 35 300.0 ; Percentage of the rated speed when the

;torque limits are fully opened [%]

constant 36 2.0 ; Time constant of 1st order filter on wind speed

;used for minimum pitch [1/1P]

constant 37 1.0 ; Time constant of 1st order filter on pitch angle

;used for gain scheduling [1/1P]

; Drivetrain damper

constant 38 0.0 ; Proportional gain of active DT damper [Nm/(rad/s)],

;requires frequency in input 10

; Over speed

constant 39 50.0 ; Overspeed percentage before initiating

;turbine controller alarm (shut-down) [%]

; Additional non-linear pitch control term (not used when all zero)

constant 40 0.0 ; Rotor speed error scaling factor [rad/s]

constant 41 0.0 ; Rotor acceleration error scaling factor [rad/s^2]

constant 42 0.0 ; Pitch rate gain [rad/s]

; Storm control command

constant 43 28.0 ; WS ’Vstorm’ above which derating of rotor speed is used [m/s]

constant 44 28.0 ; Cut-out wind speed (only

; used for derating of rotor speed in storm) [m/s]

; Safety system parameters

constant 45 50.0 ; Overspeed percentage before initiating

; safety system alarm (shut-down) [%]

constant 46 4.5 ; Max low-pass filtered tower top acceleration level [m/s^2]

; Turbine parameter

constant 47 198.0 ; Nominal rotor diameter [m]

; Parameters for rotor inertia reduction in variable speed region

constant 48 0.0 ; Proportional gain on rotor acceleration

; in variable speed region [Nm/(rad/s^2)] (not used when zero)

; Parameters for alternative partial load controller with PI regulated TSR tracking

constant 49 10.577072 ; Optimal tip speed ratio [-]

; (only used when K=constant 11=0 otherwise Qg=K*Omega^2 used)

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B.7 Tower Structure

Height Outer diameter Wall thickness

m m mm

0.000 8.3000 38

11.500 8.0215 38

11.501 8.0215 36

23.000 7.7431 36

23.001 7.7430 34

34.500 7.4646 34

34.501 7.4646 32

46.000 7.1861 32

46.001 7.1861 30

57.500 6.9076 30

57.501 6.9076 28

69.000 6.6292 28

69.001 6.6291 26

80.500 6.3507 26

80.501 6.3507 24

92.000 6.0722 24

92.001 6.0722 22

103.500 5.7937 22

103.501 5.7937 20

115.630 5.5000 20

Table 90: Wall thickness distribution of the tower. Reproduced from [4].

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B.8 Load Tables

Table 91: Loads envelope at blade root projected onto 12 loading directions in the Mx/My plane. Safetyfactors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y - edgewise direction, z - bladepitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -74626.988 0.000 -1.954 543.889 1532.704 2020.508-150.000 -63195.915 -36486.179 -265.557 917.127 1301.149 1302.884-120.000 -27711.196 -47997.200 -7.551 831.685 1082.839 1334.276-90.000 0.000 -39390.336 63.750 713.243 893.767 1368.928-60.000 19158.164 -33182.914 114.080 629.637 760.304 1393.388-30.000 39804.217 -22980.975 770.719 641.284 -679.709 1773.564

0.000 46612.056 0.000 117.896 326.666 -355.729 1706.20930.000 40889.777 23607.724 750.854 549.804 -704.384 1781.21460.000 25001.399 43303.692 138.554 608.579 701.898 1405.80390.000 0.000 42154.584 63.750 713.243 893.767 1368.928

120.000 -33761.431 58476.513 -22.230 856.070 1121.766 1327.142150.000 -67234.064 38817.605 -273.968 917.921 1347.413 1308.476

Table 92: Loads envelope at a blade station 0.7 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -73510.796 0.000 -16.148 535.305 1527.755 1994.763-150.000 -62231.715 -35929.497 -279.822 896.221 1297.531 1299.990-120.000 -27222.114 -47150.084 -19.889 816.762 1076.606 1336.461-90.000 0.000 -38618.751 53.017 700.740 887.941 1374.621-60.000 18809.541 -32579.080 104.480 618.842 754.766 1401.558-30.000 39261.910 -22667.874 775.793 634.388 -687.229 1760.930

0.000 45987.333 0.000 117.761 322.248 -362.048 1686.52030.000 40365.148 23304.829 758.218 545.125 -709.539 1767.96860.000 24642.161 42681.475 126.577 597.261 701.959 1412.93890.000 0.000 41473.716 53.017 700.740 887.941 1374.621

120.000 -33144.981 57408.791 -34.899 840.649 1115.448 1328.605150.000 -66228.059 38236.788 -290.133 896.397 1343.662 1305.508

IEA Wind TCP Task 37 - NREL· IEA Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated RD&D. The wind turbine models can be used as references for future research projects - [PDF Document] (133)

Table 93: Loads envelope at a blade station 2.9 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions in theMx/M − y plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -70225.750 0.000 61.729 516.005 1516.128 1933.905-150.000 -59399.585 -34294.367 -215.730 849.312 1288.890 1290.850-120.000 -25863.571 -44797.020 32.684 784.520 1063.337 1338.403-90.000 0.000 -36511.684 95.460 674.227 875.842 1384.260-60.000 17844.592 -30907.739 139.773 596.373 743.492 1416.630-30.000 37679.927 -21754.516 740.842 621.827 -706.459 1726.483

0.000 44093.958 0.000 96.034 316.622 -369.674 1638.80930.000 38742.061 22367.739 722.088 539.061 -724.586 1729.49460.000 23577.494 40837.418 152.697 573.666 704.890 1426.07190.000 0.000 39461.364 95.460 674.227 875.842 1384.260

120.000 -31283.402 54184.442 19.759 807.227 1101.939 1328.962150.000 -63208.571 36493.485 -227.155 847.813 1333.947 1295.641

Table 94: Loads envelope at a blade station 4.8 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -67321.278 0.000 104.409 502.891 1506.178 1876.974-150.000 -56886.936 -32843.688 -179.357 818.037 1281.993 1274.203-120.000 -24664.280 -42719.787 62.339 764.324 1054.645 1328.786-90.000 0.000 -34675.889 119.474 658.187 867.998 1378.962-60.000 16999.928 -29444.739 158.124 586.388 741.736 1412.905-30.000 36281.577 -20947.178 725.666 613.059 -721.005 1691.889

0.000 42385.750 0.000 73.621 287.287 -409.954 1605.62830.000 37273.108 21519.639 705.773 535.119 -736.344 1692.31760.000 22651.908 39234.255 171.567 561.415 697.819 1424.71190.000 0.000 37671.361 119.474 658.187 867.998 1378.962

120.000 -29696.657 51436.119 50.576 786.175 1093.073 1318.456150.000 -60531.923 34948.122 -197.952 815.345 1321.038 1277.782

Table 95: Loads envelope at a blade station 9.7 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -60181.022 0.000 270.646 474.960 1481.818 1750.317-150.000 -50704.610 -29274.320 -28.221 749.825 1263.242 1226.967-120.000 -21827.576 -37806.471 177.133 716.423 1028.599 1298.942-90.000 0.000 -30451.847 205.342 620.662 849.781 1355.855-60.000 15013.499 -26004.143 225.003 553.919 725.151 1395.522-30.000 32729.105 -18896.157 654.486 581.859 -755.082 1604.638

0.000 38097.625 0.000 41.426 253.481 -456.987 1505.74530.000 33523.203 19354.630 630.413 516.158 -766.547 1600.03260.000 20217.300 35017.391 231.842 530.704 681.802 1409.31990.000 0.000 33469.588 205.342 620.662 849.781 1355.855

120.000 -25872.386 44812.286 171.149 736.736 1066.529 1286.870150.000 -53894.932 31116.253 -62.880 743.241 1283.195 1221.123

131

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Table 96: Loads envelope at a blade station 14.5 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -53197.768 0.000 454.465 442.217 1440.425 1612.830-150.000 -44683.809 -25798.209 148.934 692.003 1229.980 1163.773-120.000 -19185.047 -33229.476 603.562 747.069 757.099 1204.067-90.000 0.000 -27039.794 1053.925 762.312 211.188 1206.329-60.000 13229.260 -22913.751 1354.167 772.475 -152.753 1207.837-30.000 29238.129 -16880.642 537.515 534.156 -771.486 1502.248

0.000 33921.587 0.000 -110.275 19.259 -836.051 1582.16330.000 29755.325 17179.245 513.614 475.217 -781.604 1495.07760.000 18094.882 31341.255 1476.993 776.632 -301.638 1208.45490.000 0.000 29409.102 1053.925 762.312 211.188 1206.329

120.000 -22259.260 38554.169 521.678 744.297 856.356 1203.656150.000 -47433.001 27385.456 113.500 681.880 1255.343 1155.046

Table 97: Loads envelope at a blade station 19.3 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -46471.852 0.000 589.023 411.419 1392.846 1468.647-150.000 -38921.979 -22471.615 259.013 632.714 1185.152 1085.792-120.000 -16693.175 -28913.427 607.066 694.179 748.343 1128.381-90.000 0.000 -24294.978 1004.203 714.328 206.238 1119.298-60.000 11706.265 -20275.845 1280.996 728.371 -171.593 1112.967-30.000 26119.802 -15080.275 414.849 469.142 -784.221 1384.317

0.000 30086.933 0.000 -441.776 75.082 -678.477 1332.34730.000 26094.112 15065.443 414.849 469.142 -784.221 1384.31760.000 16069.993 27834.044 1389.306 733.866 -319.440 1110.49090.000 0.000 25652.214 1004.203 714.328 206.238 1119.298

120.000 -18896.751 32730.133 558.928 691.737 814.053 1129.482150.000 -41477.290 23946.924 233.490 622.460 1212.161 1076.038

Table 98: Loads envelope at a blade station 24.2 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -40302.942 0.000 523.804 344.481 1313.762 1334.263-150.000 -33668.789 -19438.684 -33.134 529.403 990.698 865.777-120.000 -14302.011 -24771.810 97.276 610.190 484.078 959.953-90.000 0.000 -21539.191 679.917 647.553 70.020 979.841-60.000 10379.497 -17977.816 1116.898 675.575 -240.523 994.757-30.000 23050.618 -13308.281 393.638 390.697 -782.071 1251.322

0.000 26539.038 0.000 -444.832 94.724 -606.178 1202.12830.000 23002.356 13280.416 393.638 390.697 -782.071 1251.32260.000 14205.977 24605.475 1262.558 684.916 -344.038 999.73090.000 0.000 22213.750 679.917 647.553 70.020 979.841

120.000 -16146.121 27965.902 24.446 605.520 535.835 957.467150.000 -35664.660 20591.001 126.493 552.772 1116.512 946.894

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Table 99: Loads envelope at a blade station 31.4 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -31710.617 0.000 281.437 295.510 1204.264 1125.278-150.000 -26739.027 -15437.785 -178.750 465.692 916.684 733.903-120.000 -10959.865 -18983.043 41.359 546.984 442.205 842.703-90.000 0.000 -17448.414 620.982 582.958 53.885 847.786-60.000 8660.159 -14999.835 1088.419 611.970 -259.276 851.885-30.000 18283.887 -10556.207 782.224 390.524 -584.099 1266.512

0.000 21166.177 0.000 -99.395 16.925 -736.355 1202.73730.000 18461.729 10658.884 782.224 390.524 -584.099 1266.51260.000 11527.368 19965.987 1238.000 621.254 -359.488 853.19790.000 0.000 17615.442 620.982 582.958 53.885 847.786

120.000 -12743.710 22072.752 -52.129 541.182 504.837 841.883150.000 -28072.002 16207.378 -50.890 478.895 1020.072 802.622

Table 100: Loads envelope at a blade station 38.7 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -24107.103 0.000 71.501 255.494 1077.980 922.280-150.000 -20658.385 -11927.124 -292.896 406.406 831.852 593.361-120.000 -8170.764 -14152.179 317.342 462.882 329.672 623.096-90.000 0.000 -13618.843 755.358 501.237 4.746 655.477-60.000 6846.410 -11858.330 1120.372 533.199 -266.025 682.461-30.000 14365.932 -8294.175 832.837 372.075 -590.407 1017.770

0.000 16850.083 0.000 63.415 -2.320 -677.420 952.00830.000 14617.864 8439.628 795.963 339.236 -602.341 1029.55460.000 8996.943 15583.163 1237.176 543.427 -352.672 691.09690.000 0.000 13498.823 755.358 501.237 4.746 655.477

120.000 -9777.088 16934.413 229.739 455.211 394.657 616.620150.000 -21348.132 12325.350 -195.397 405.761 909.018 647.012

Table 101: Loads envelope at a blade station 45.9 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -17878.275 0.000 266.248 1.199 859.294 607.631-150.000 -15475.290 -8934.663 -225.807 274.629 720.322 491.158-120.000 -5988.769 -10372.852 286.023 395.267 291.423 490.497-90.000 0.000 -10088.037 723.190 422.371 1.543 515.244-60.000 5114.886 -8859.242 1087.496 444.958 -240.024 535.867-30.000 10716.615 -6187.241 888.015 338.739 -517.944 758.767

0.000 12742.061 0.000 239.058 37.925 -626.731 756.96430.000 11225.661 6481.138 833.393 258.639 -541.406 749.14760.000 6651.636 11520.972 1189.502 451.282 -307.663 541.64190.000 0.000 9938.036 723.190 422.371 1.543 515.244

120.000 -7195.422 12462.836 198.589 389.846 349.400 485.547150.000 -15501.479 8949.783 -225.807 274.629 720.322 491.158

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Table 102: Loads envelope at a blade station 53.2 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -12795.702 0.000 95.961 -4.887 707.873 392.589-150.000 -11075.328 -6394.343 -368.702 270.552 609.324 380.900-120.000 -4268.002 -7392.396 112.374 317.787 231.301 467.004-90.000 0.000 -7123.223 415.172 329.308 -40.423 556.957-60.000 3657.586 -6335.126 896.311 357.243 -212.802 462.202-30.000 7626.248 -4403.016 868.662 284.681 -475.074 561.402

0.000 9134.304 0.000 464.199 91.765 -550.381 550.71730.000 8251.536 4764.027 813.230 217.687 -495.744 547.63060.000 4638.668 8034.409 1024.007 364.927 -251.285 430.39590.000 0.000 7082.739 415.172 329.308 -40.423 556.957

120.000 -4977.597 8621.451 61.908 315.867 276.588 452.012150.000 -11075.328 6394.343 -368.702 270.552 609.324 380.900

Table 103: Loads envelope at a blade station 60.4 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -8761.010 0.000 -108.161 52.236 544.871 198.939-150.000 -7327.188 -4230.354 -341.202 179.998 486.672 292.318-120.000 -2856.711 -4947.969 -381.423 -70.786 184.381 439.301-90.000 0.000 -4723.481 -406.449 -226.830 -3.711 530.757-60.000 2474.094 -4285.257 576.977 194.433 -162.463 364.867-30.000 5149.099 -2972.834 786.825 231.778 -406.723 405.350

0.000 6278.424 0.000 460.424 77.388 -422.381 404.55430.000 5621.578 3245.620 742.019 187.082 -422.162 372.97160.000 3130.715 5422.557 837.368 296.268 -204.573 309.70590.000 0.000 4777.382 -406.449 -226.830 -3.711 530.757

120.000 -3316.951 5745.127 -376.954 -42.921 217.969 422.969150.000 -7617.967 4398.235 -338.521 196.717 506.825 282.519

Table 104: Loads envelope at a blade station 67.7 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -5546.051 0.000 -118.875 47.497 442.256 99.945-150.000 -4333.226 -2501.789 -281.351 150.183 366.132 171.873-120.000 -1763.214 -3053.976 -192.748 119.113 307.809 155.681-90.000 0.000 -2880.957 -132.940 98.140 268.442 144.752-60.000 1579.268 -2735.373 371.654 187.449 -22.310 184.038-30.000 3267.795 -1886.662 657.999 185.969 -254.455 225.066

0.000 4091.893 0.000 635.038 153.196 -290.059 276.21130.000 3639.741 2101.405 656.647 167.374 -275.477 252.72960.000 2085.079 3611.463 647.328 242.832 -174.839 187.90090.000 0.000 2929.106 -132.940 98.140 268.442 144.752

120.000 -2075.701 3595.220 -203.823 122.996 315.100 157.705150.000 -4807.980 2775.889 -193.058 104.719 424.308 129.742

134

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Table 105: Loads envelope at a blade station 74.9 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -3068.399 0.000 -20.921 -7.651 279.470 96.570-150.000 -2398.812 -1384.955 -173.920 115.144 273.936 84.989-120.000 -943.258 -1633.770 -72.840 109.787 172.708 107.832-90.000 0.000 -1506.459 -7.138 106.306 106.910 122.680-60.000 871.970 -1510.296 85.211 107.723 29.512 135.082-30.000 1932.896 -1115.958 370.335 137.394 -142.656 166.483

0.000 2440.479 0.000 313.565 78.255 -239.811 99.79630.000 2196.417 1268.102 323.542 130.192 -125.450 163.28660.000 1231.480 2132.987 265.868 126.802 -82.923 137.46690.000 0.000 1625.442 -7.138 106.306 106.910 122.680

120.000 -1146.887 1986.466 -88.002 110.591 187.893 104.405150.000 -2673.957 1543.810 -161.216 92.158 292.334 71.235

Table 106: Loads envelope at a blade station 82.1 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -1325.300 0.000 -18.542 -2.110 166.449 34.384-150.000 -1088.986 -628.726 -74.202 63.638 183.166 19.768-120.000 -379.155 -656.717 -34.024 64.568 119.453 40.291-90.000 0.000 -578.473 -9.981 59.923 85.661 47.532-60.000 370.186 -641.180 11.413 55.637 55.524 55.202-30.000 894.338 -516.346 183.232 90.516 -124.344 36.307

0.000 1134.255 0.000 186.929 65.733 -165.033 3.40830.000 1023.869 591.131 244.199 84.767 -155.101 0.96660.000 550.531 953.548 -6.597 56.308 79.557 72.35890.000 0.000 719.294 -9.981 59.923 85.661 47.532

120.000 -471.943 817.430 -40.296 65.780 128.268 38.402150.000 -1158.088 668.622 -73.714 55.607 188.427 12.699

Table 107: Loads envelope at a blade station 89.3 m from the root, projected into 12 loading directions inthe Mx/My plane. Safety factors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - flapwise direction, y -edgewise direction, z - blade pitch axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -297.284 0.000 -13.421 16.366 92.177 -11.914-150.000 -238.466 -137.678 -11.586 17.679 81.913 -2.189-120.000 -77.922 -134.965 -2.111 5.492 52.911 17.029-90.000 0.000 -115.489 -2.627 10.224 46.690 19.922-60.000 81.523 -141.202 -3.170 15.204 40.142 22.968-30.000 223.111 -128.813 54.179 51.233 -60.037 -1.114

0.000 305.887 0.000 20.247 17.145 -82.282 -25.97330.000 267.631 154.517 43.931 45.867 -61.775 0.26560.000 137.805 238.686 -3.550 18.691 35.558 25.10090.000 0.000 177.246 -2.627 10.224 46.690 19.922

120.000 -116.133 201.148 -1.839 3.001 56.185 15.506150.000 -260.826 150.588 -14.140 18.649 86.000 -6.053

135

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Table 108: Tower base load envelope projected into 4 loading directions in the Mx/M − y plane. Safetyfactors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - for-aft direction, y - side-side direction, z - towertorsion axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -383486.250 0.000 17159.560 -86.872 -2895.174 14509.668-90.000 0.000 -121510.564 9529.026 -1377.346 341.400 14412.969

0.000 242806.562 0.000 603.613 166.045 2579.660 14709.29390.000 0.000 152858.419 9529.026 -1377.346 341.400 14412.969

Table 109: Tower top load envelope projected into 4 loading directions in the Mx/M − y plane. Safetyfactors already applied. Reference coordinate system: x - for-aft direction, y - side-side direction, z - towertorsion axis.

Projection angle Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

-180.000 -90729.500 0.000 1633.239 120.319 181.800 9174.183-90.000 0.000 -8706.259 -18047.282 -522.499 -366.075 7832.964

0.000 15740.870 0.000 -1271.766 -74.069 -149.817 7620.42490.000 0.000 18954.030 -18047.282 -522.499 -366.075 7832.964

136

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